English-Gothic dictionary

English to Gothic dictionary

This list contains attested words and words reconstructed by linguists. This dictionary is especially written for writing in Gothic, therefore stems are included.​ This dictionary currently contains 2056 English lemmas.

Abbreviations

acc. = accusative
adv. = adverb
dat. = dative
int. = interrogative (questions)
voc. = vocative
W.E. = reconstructed by Wolfram Euler
n. = noun
v. = verb
+ = neologism (these are words which didn’t exist when the Goths lived.)
* = reconstruction
Greek = direct translation of original Greek, highly unlikely genuine Gothic

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Thanks to Ulfowaldo for providing the Spanish translation.

Initial position means the first place in a phrase, in “The man is here.”, ‘the’ is in the initial position.

Just like in normal dictionaries, ~ means a repetition of the main word. So if you look up Gothic and find “2. *~ language”, the ~ means Gothic.

Here are some tips when using Gothic:

All -us nouns are masculine, except for faihu (n.) (Property) and reconstructed *alu (n.) (Beer) and handus (f.) (Hand), kinnus (f.) (Cheek), baurgswaddjus (f.) (Wall) and asiluqairnus (f.) (Millstone).

The declensions of the nouns are:

In order of: nom. sing, gen. sing, dat. sing, acc. sing, voc. sing, nom. plur., gen. plur., dat. plur., acc. plur., voc. plur.

m. A = -s, -is, -a, -, -, -os, -e, -am, -ans, -os
n. A = -, -is, -a, -, -, -a, -e, -am, -a, -a
f. O = -a, -os, -ai, -a, -os, -o, -om, -os, -os

When saying for instance “It is beautiful”, you use the n. Declension (Skaun ist).

When more translations are available, the most prevalent is given first.

a – (English article, is untranslated)
abandoned – ainakls (adj. A)
abbreviation (n.) – *maurgeins (f. I/O)
abolish, to (v.) – blauþjan (I weak i)
abolishment (n.) – *blauþeins (f. I/O)
abominable (adj.) – andasets (adj. I)
about – 1. bi + acc (about him) 2. swe (about two miles)
absent (adj.) – afhaimeis (adj. Ja) (far from home)
abstinence – gahobains (f. I)
abundance (n.) – 1. ufarassus (m. U) 2. ufarfullei (f. N) 3. digrei (f. N)
abuse (n.) – *anamahts (f. I)
abuse, to (v.) – anamahtjan (I)
abuser (n.) – *anamahtjands (m. Cons.)
abyss (n.) – afgrundiþa (f. O)
acceptation (n.) – andanumts (f. I)
accepted (adj.) – andanems (adj. I)
access (n.) – atgagg (n. A)
according – ~ to = afar + dative
accusation (n.) – 1. fairina (f. O) 2. wrohs (f. I)
accusative (n.) – *akkusateibus (m. U)
accustomed (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
adapted (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
add, to – anaaukan (II red) (add up to)
adjure, to (v.) – biswaran (VI abl)
adoption (n.) – frastisibja (f. Jo)
adorn, to – fetjan (I i weak)
adult – uswahsans (pret-pres)
adulterer (n.) – hors (m. A)
adulteress (n.) – *horo (f. N)
adultery (n.) – horinassus (m. U)
advance (n.) – framgahts (f. I)
advantage (n.) – bota (f. O)
adversary (n.) – 1. andastaua (m. N) (in court) 2. andastaþjis (m. Ja)
advertisement (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advertising (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advice (n.) – ragin (n. A)
affection (n.) – 1. winna (f. O) 2. winno (f. N)
affliction (n.) – wunns (f. I)
afraid (adj.) – faurhts (adj. A)
after – afar + dat/acc (in locative it’s the dative, temporal form uses either dative or accusative)
again – aftra
against – 1. wiþra + acc 2. over~ = wiþrawairþs (adj. A)
aged – 1. sineigs (adj. A) (as in old) 2.  framaldrs (adj. A) (well stricken in years.)
aggressiveness (n.) – þrasabalþei (f. N)
agree, to – waila hugjan (I weak) + dat (person/thing agreed with is in dative), sijais waila hugjands andastauin þeinamma = agree with thine adversary
agreement (n.) – samaqiss (f. I)
aim (n.) – mundrei (f. N)
alienated – framaþeis (adj. Ja) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)

alienated, to be – framaþjan (I weak i) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)
alm (n.) – armaio (f. N)
almighty (n.) – allwaldands (m. Nd)
all – alls (adj. A strong), not at ~ = ni allis
allegoric – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
allegorical – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
along – and + acc
alphabet (n.) – 1. *bokatewa (f. O) 2. *azgabairka (f. O) (lit. Ash-birch, the first two letters of the Gothic alphabet, but bokatewa should be used for other alphabets)
alphabetical – *bokateweis (adj. Ja)
always – sinteino
already – ju
altar – hunslastaþs (m. I)
altruism (n.) – *broþrulubo (f. N)
altruist (n.) – 1. *broþrulubja (m. N) 2. *broþrulubjo (f. N)
amaze, to be – afslauþnan (IV)
amazement (n.) – usfilmei (f. N), ~n dissitan = to be amazed
amber (n.) – 1. *glas (n. A) 2. *gles (n. A)
amber route (n.) – 1. *glasawigs (m. A) 2. *glesawigs (m. A)
amen – amen
American – 1. +Amairikisks (adj. A) 2. +Amairikus (m. U/I) (citizen)
anarchism (n.) – +anarxismus (m. U)
anarchist (n.) – +anarxistus (m. U)
anarchistic – +anarxists (adj. A)
answer (n.) – andahafts (f. I)
and – 1. jah 2. -uh (Can only be used after verbs and names)
angel (n.) – aggilus (m. U/I)
anger (n.) – moþs (m. A)
angle (n.) – *skina (f. O)
angry – ~ on = modags (adj. A) + dat, to be ~ on = hatizon (II weak) + dat
anguish (n.) – aggwiþa (f. O)
anoint, to – gasmeitan (abl I)
anonymous – *unnamniþs (past. part. as adj.)
answer (n.) – 1. andahafts (f. I) 2. andawaurdi (n. Ja)
answer, to – 1. andhafjan (VI) + dat
ant (n.) – *miurjo (f. N)
Antiochia (n.) – Antiaukia (f. Noun, declined as O)
anthropological – +mannaleis (adj. A)
anthropologist (n.) – 1. +mannaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. +mannaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
anthropology (n.) – +mannaleisei (f. N)
any – 1. ~ man = mannahun (first part declined as manna)
apostle (n.) – apaustaulus (m. U/I)
apostleship (n.) – apaustaulei (f. I)
apparel – gafeteins (f. I/O)
appearing – gabairhteins (f. I/O)
appetizer – *tappa (f. O)
approach, to – anaqiman (IV)
Arabia – Arabia (f. Undeclined)
archangel – arkaggilus (m. U/I)
arkenstone – *airknastains (m. A)
armour – sarwa (n. Wa)
army – harjis (m. Ja)
aroma – *aroma (pl. *aromata) (n. A) (W.E.)
arranged – garaiþs (adj. A)
arrive, to – atfarjan (I j weak) (arrive in a land)
arrow – arhvazna (f. O)
art – skaun (r. Ja) waurstw (n. A), skaun waurstw
artificial – 1. *handuwaurhts (past perf.) 2. *mannawaurhts (past perf.)
artemisia – *artaimisja (f. O)
ash – azgo (f. N)
ashamed – to be ~ = gaaiwiskon (II weak)
Asia – Asia (f. O)
ask, to – fraihnan (V abl)
asleep – to fall ~ = anaslepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = anasaizlep)
aspersion – ufarranneins (f. I/O)
ass – assilus (m. U) (synonyme of donkey)
assumption – anaminds (f. I)
astronomer – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astronomical – +stairnaleis (adj. A)
astronomically – +stairnaleisaba
astronomy – +stairnaleisei (f. N)
attack, to – gasokjan miþ *wepnam (m. A)
Athens – Aþeineis (m. U/I) (lit. Athenians, but the plural form of a people was used to refer to a place too.)
attract, to – atþinsan (III)
auger – *nabagais (m. A)
austere – hardus (adj. U)
Austria – +australand (n. A)
author – bokareis (m. Ja)
avenger – *fraweitands (m. Nd)
await, to – beidan (I)
awake, to – gawaknan (IV weak) 2. usskarjan (I weak j) (awake from something bad, power from evil)
aware, to be – miþwitan (pret-pres) (for I know nothing by myself = nih waiht auk mis silbin miþwait)
axe – aqizi (f. Jo)
Babylonia – *Babwlaun
backwards – afta
bag – balgs (m. I)
Balder (myth.) – *baldrs (m. A)
ball – *balla (m. N)
balloon – +bauljo (f. N)
balsam – balsan (n. A)
ban, to – uswairpan (III abl)
banish, to – uswairpan (III abl)
bank – skattjans (m. N) (plural of skattja (moneychanger) means a bank)
banker – 1. *skattja (m. N) 2. *skattjo (f. N)
banquet – dauhts (f. I)
baptist – daupjands (m. Nd)
bar – ans (m. A)
barbarian – barbarus (m. U/I)
barely – halisaiw
barley – barizeins (adj. A), ~ loaf = barizeins hlaifs (m. A) cooked ~ = *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
barn – bansts (m. I)
barrel – *barils (m. A)
barren – stairo (f. N)
basket – tainjo (f. N)
battle – waihjo (f. N)
beam – ans (m. A)
bean – *bauna (f. O)
bear – *baira (m. N)
bear, to – bairan (IV)
beat, to – 1. stautan (II red) 2. bliggwan (III abl) 3. *biutan (II)
beautiful – skauns (adj. I/Ja)
beautifully – *skauniba
because – 1. duþe 2. unte (Only in initial position.) 3. ~ of = in + gen
bed – ligrs (m. A)
bedroom – (neol) badiheþjo (f. N) / (neol) slepaheþjo (f. N)
bee – *biwa (f. Wo)
beer – *alu (n. U), barley ~ = barizalu (n. U), black ~ = swartalu (n. U), wheat ~ = hvaitjalu (n. U), white ~ = hveitalu (n. U)
before – 1. faurþis 2. faurþizei + subjunctive (only used after a comma)
beg, to – bidjan (V)
beggar – bidagwa (m. N)
beginning – anastodeins (f. I)
behave, to – ~ badly = aiwiskon (II weak)
behaviour – usmet (n. A)
behind – afta
Belarus – +Hweitarusaland (n. A)
Belarussian – 1. +Hweitarus (m. A) (citizen) 2. +Hweitarusisks (adj. A)
Belgian – 1. *Bailgus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Bailgisks (adj. A)
Belgium – *Bailgaland (n. A)
Belgrade – +Hveitabaurgs (f. Cons)
belief – galaubeins (f. I/O)
believe, to – galaubjan (I weak i) + dat, ~ in = galaubjan du + dat
bench – *banks (m. I)
bend, to – *lutan (II strong) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
benefit – wailadeþs (f. I) (good deed)
Beroia – Bairauja (f. Noun, declined as O)
berry – basi (n. Ja)
Bethlehem – Beþlaihaim (nom. Beþlaihaim gen. Beþlaihaimis)
betray, to – fralewjan (I weak)
better – 1. batiza (comp.) 2. usiza (comp.) (Preferable)
between – miþ + dat, ~ the two borders = miþ tweihnaim markom
bewail, to – flokan (V red)
bewitch, to – afhugjan (I weak)
bicycle – 1. *raþjo (f. Jo) (lit. Wheeler) 2. *bainjo (f. Jo) (lit. Legger) 3. *fotjo (f. Jo) (lit. Footer) 4. *eisarnamarhs (m. A) (lit. Iron-horse)
big – mikils (adj. A)
binary – 1. *tweihnai (adj. A) (plural, meaning both) (W.E.) 2. *twafalþs (adj. A) (W.E.)
biological – *libainileis (adj. A)
biologist – 1. +libainileis (m. A) (declined like adjective) 2. +libainileisa (f. O) (declined like adjective)
biology – +libainileisei (f. N)
birch – *bairka (f. O)
bird – fugls (m. A)
birth – gabaurþs (f. I)
bisexual – 1. *alalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 2. *twalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 3. *alalustjo (f. N) (bisexual woman) 4. *twalustjo (bisexual woman)
bishop – aipiskaupus (m. U), office of a ~ = aipiskaupei
bitch – 1. *hundi (f. Jo) 2. *hundjo (f. N) 3. *bikjo (f. On) 4. *tauho (f. N)
bitcoin – (neol) *bitkaujn (n. A)
bite, to – beitan (I abl)
bitter – baitrs (adj. A)
bitterness – baitrei (f. N)
black – swarts (adj. A)
blackbird – *amslo (f. N)
blame, to – 1. anawammjan (I i weak) 2. andbeitan (I abl) 3. fairinon (II weak)
blameless – ungafairinoþs (past-perf)
blank – *bas (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
blasphemy – 1. wajamerei (f. N) 2. wajamereins (f. I/O)
blend, to – blandan (III red)
blessed – audags (adj. A)
blessedness – audagei (f. N)
blessing – þiuþeins (f. I/O)
blue – 1. *blews (adj. A) 2. *blaus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
blind – blinds (adj. A)
block, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (as in to block the way)
blog – *blaug (n. A)
blogger – 1. *blaugja (m. N) (male blogger) 2. *blaugjo (f. N) (female blogger)
boar – *bais (m. A)
boast, to – hwopan (V red)
boaster – bihaitja (m. N)
boasting – hvoftuli (f. Jo)
bodily – leikeins (adj. A)
body – leik (n. A)
bold, to be – anananþjan (I i weak)
boldness – balþei (f. N)
bond – kunawida (f. O)
bordel – 1. kalkjarazn (n. A) 2. *kalkjahus (n. A)
border – marka (f. O)
border, to – gamarkon (II weak)
bough *bogus (m. U) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
boundary – marka (f. O)
born, to be – wairþan (III)
borrow, to – leihvan (I abl)
bosom – barms (m. I)
bow – *buga (m. N)
bow, to – biugan (II abl)
box – arka (f. O)
branch – 1. asts (m. A) 2. tains (m. A)
bread – hlaifs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms), light ~ = hwaitahlaifs (m. A), brown ~ = swartahlaifs (m. A), wheat ~ = hwaitjahlaifs (m. A)
break, to – dishniupan (II abl)- he brake the bands = dishniupands þos bandjos
breast – brusts (f. Cons.)
breastplate – brunjo (f. N)
breath – *aþana (m. N)
bridegroom – bruþfaþs (m. I)
bridge – 1. *bruddi (f. Ja) 2. *bruwja (f. Ja)
bring, to – attiuhan (II abl) (to bring a person)
broad – rums (adj.)
brook – rinno (f. N)
brother – broþar (m. R), ~s = broþrahans (m. N)
brotherly love – broþrulubo (f. N)
brown – *bruns (adj. A) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
bruise, to – gamalwjan (I weak)
bubble – *bauljo (f. N)
build, to – timrjan (I j weak) ~ upon = anatimrjan (I weak i)
building – gatimrjo (f. N)
Bulgaria – *Bulgarja (f. O)
Bulgarian – 1. *Bulgarus (m. U/I) 2. *Bulgariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Bulgarisks (adj. A)
burden – kauriþa (f. O)
burial – gafilh (n. A), day of burying = dags (m. A) gafilhis
bury, to – ganawistron (II weak) (perf.)
bus – 1. *aumnibus (m. A/m. U) 2. *wigaskip (n. A)
bush – bramble ~ = aihvatundi (f. Jo)
bushel – mela (m. N)
business – to do ~ = kaupon (II weak)
butcher – skilja (m. N)
butter – 1. *ankwa (m. N) 2. *smairw (n. A) 3. *butwr (n. A) 4. *butwraun (loan from Greek)
butterfly – 1. *feifalþra (f. O) 2. *feifaldra (f. O)
button – *haubidilo (n. N) (lit. little head)
buy, to – bugjan (I weak j)
byte – *bajt (n. A)
cabbage – *kauls (m. A)
cacao – *kakaw (n. A)
cake – *koka (f. O)
calf – 1. stiur (m. A) 2. kalbo (f. N) (female calf which is under one years old and which hasn’t got calves yet)
call, to – atlaþon (II weak)
calm – wis (n. A) (of water)
camel – ulbandus (m. U)
camp – bibaurgeins (f. I/O)
can, to – magan (pret-pres)
cancer – gund (n. A)
candlestick – lukarnastaþa (m. N)
capital city – *haubidabaurgs (f. Cons)
captivity – hunþs (m. A)
car – *karrs (m. A)
carbon – *kul (n. A)
card – *karta (f. O)
cardboard – *kartabaurd (n. A)
cardiological – *hairtaleis (adj. A)
cardiologist – 1. *hairtaleis (m. A) (declined as adjective) 2. *hairtaleisa (f. O) (declined as adjective)
cardiology – *hairtaleisei (f. N)
care – kara (f. O), he ~s about .. = .. (gen) imma kara ist, to take ~ of = gakaron (II weak) (perf.), to ~ for = karon (II weak)
carefully – us gaþagkja
carp – *karpa (f. O)
carpenter – timrja (m. N)
carry, to – bairan (IV)
cast, to – ~ down = afdrausjan (I i weak), ~ away = afskiuban (II abl) + dative, ~ off = afskiuban (II abl) + dat
casualness – latei (f. N)
catalogue – *katalaugus (m. U)
catamite – *magulus (m. U)
cathedral – *aipiskaupaus aikklesjo (f. N) 2. *kaþaidral (n. A)
Catholic – *allagalaufs (adj. A) (Based on Old English “eallgeleaflic”)
Catholicism – *allagalaubeins (f. I/O)
cauldron – *hwair
cautious – *war (adj. A)
cease, to – sweiban (i abl)
celestial body – tuggl (n. A)
cell – 1. *kailla (f. N) 2. heþjo (f. N)
Celt – *Kailts (m. A) (W.E.)
Celtic – *Kailtisks (adj. A)
centurion – hundafaþs (m. I)
century – *jerahund (m. A)
certain – sums (adj. A)
chaff – ahana (f. O)
chair – sitls (m. A)
chamber – heþjo (f. N)
change – inmaideins (f. I/O)
change, to – 1. inmaidjan (I i weak) 2. ~ into = ingaleikon (II weak)
cheek – kinnus (f. U)
cheerfulness – hlasei (f. N)
cheese – 1. *justs (m. A) 2. *kaseis (m. Ja)
chicken – hana (m. N)
child – barn (n. A)
childhood – barniski (n. Ja)
childish – barnisks (adj. A)
chiliarch – *þiufadus (m. U) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigotorum II, 1,16 and 1,27)
chocolate – *kakawamats (m. A)
Christ – Xristus (m. U)
christmas – weiha (adj. A) nahts (f. Cons.), weiha nahts
chromosome – *xromasoma (n. A) (nom. Pl. *xromasomata) (W.E.)
chupacabra – 1. *gaitisugja (m. N) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson) 2. *gaitisugjo (f. N) (female chupacabra)
church – aikklesjo (f. N)
cigarette – *sigaraita (f. O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
cinder – azgo (f. N)
cinema – 1. *filmarazn (n. A) 2. *filmahus (n. A)
circle – *hriggs (m. A)
circumcise, to – bimaitan (I red)
circumcision – bimaita (f. O)
citizen – baurgja (m. N)
citizenship – kawtsjo (f. N)
clamour – hrops (m. A)
clay – þaho (f. N)
cleansing – gahraineins (f. I/O)
clear – skeirs (adj. I) (as in clearly understanding)
clearly – *skeiriba (adv) (as in clearly understanding)
cloak – inilo (f. N)
clock – *horaulaugi (n. Ja) (based on the word for a time-keeping device in Latin, hōrologium, from the Greek word hōrológion)
cloke – hakuls (m. Noun)
close – nehva (near) + dat
close, to~ a book = falþan (III red) bokos (f. O)
closer – nehvis
closet – heþjo (f. N)
clothe, to – gawasjan sik (I weak)
cloud – milhma (m. N)
coal – hauri (n. Ja), glowing ~ = *brasa
coat – paida (f. O)
cock – hana (m. N) (male hen)
coffee – *kahwa (f. O) (W. E.)
coin – skatts (m. A)
cold – kalþs (adj. A)
collectively – alakjo
colony – niujaland (n. A) (W.E.)
colt – fula (m. N)
comb – *kambs (m. A)
comb, to – *kambjan (ei)
come, to – qiman (IV abl)
coming – qums (m. I)
comfort – gaþrafstei (f. I/O)
comfort, to – 1. anaþrafstjan (I weak) 2. gaþlaihan (I red)
comforter – parakletus (m. U) (Greek)
comfortless – widuwairna (m. N)
command, to – anabiudan (II abl)
commandmend – anabusns (f. I)
comment – *waurd (n. A)
commonwealth – usmet (n. A)
communication – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
communism – 1. *gamainalaiseins (f. I/O) 2. *gamaineins laiseins (f. I/O) 3. *kaumunismus (m. U)
communist – 1. *kaumunistus (m. U) 2. *gamainalaiseinja (m. N) 3. *gamainalaiseinjo (f. N)
communistic – *kaumunists (adj. A)
companion – gahlaiba (m. N)
compare, to – galeikon (II weak) + dat (dative is that to which is compared)
compell, to – baidjan (I weak i) + acc
concord – samaqiss (f. I)
concupiscence – gairuni (n. Ja)
condemnation – wargiþa (f. O)
confirm, to – gatulgjan (I weak i)
confirmation – *gatulgeins (f. I/O)
connectedly – gahahjo
conscience – 1. miþwissei (f. N) 2. þuhtus (m. U) 3. gahugds (f. I)
consent – gaqiss (adj. A)
consolation – þrafsteins (f. I/O)
conspiracy – birunains (f. I) ~ theory = *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O) birunainais
conspirator – *birunands (m. Cons.)
conspire, to – birunan (III)
consume, to – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
contain, to – haban (III weak)
container~ for transport = *barils (m. A)
contentto be ~ = ganohiþs (I weak i) wisan
continence – gahobains (f. I)
contrary – andaneiþs (adj. A)
convenient – gatils (adj. A)
conveniently – gatilaba
convent – *maunasteri (n. Ja) (W.E.)
convention – gaqumþs (f. I)
conversation – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
conversion – gawandeins (f. I/O)
cool – *kolus (adj. U)
Copenhagen – *Kaupahabana (f. O)
coppersmith – aizasmiþa (m. N)
corner – waihsta (m. N), ~ stone = waihstastains (m. A)
corporal – leikeins (adj. A)
corporeal – leikeins (adj. A)
correction – garaihteins (f. I/O)
corrupt, to – riurjan (I weak i)
corruption – riurei (f. N) (as in eternal destruction)
costly – galaufs (adj. A), very ~ = filugalaufs (adj. A)
cotton – *bagmawulla (f. O)
council – gafaurds (f. I), to take ~ = runa (f. O) gataujan (I)
counsel – to give ~ = garaginon (II weak) (perf.)
counsellor – ragineis (m. Ja)
country – land (n. A)
countryman – inkunja (m. N)
cousin – 1. gadilligs (m. Noun) (male) 2. niþjo (f. N) (female) 3. ganiþjis (m. Ja)
coutiousness – gaþagki (n. Ja)
cover, to – huljan (I weak j)
cow – *kos (f. Cons)
craftiness – warei (f. N)
crane – *krana (m. N)
crazy – 1. dwals (adj. A) (foolish, stupid) 2. woþs (adj. A) (raging mad, insane)
cream – 1. *raums (m. A) 2. *riuma (m. N)
creation – gaskafts (f. I)
creditor – dulgahaitja (m. N)
creep, to – sliupan (II abl) (as in creep into the house)
crime – missadeþs (f. I)
criminological – *missadedileis (adj. A)
criminologist – 1. *missadedileis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *missadedileisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
criminology – *missadedileisei (f. N)
crooked – wraiqs (adj. A)
cross – 1. *kruks (m./n. A) 2. galga (m. N) (christian cross)
crow, to – hrukjan (I weak i)
crown – 1. waips (m. Noun) 2. wipja (f. Jo)
crown, to – weipan (I abl)
crucify, to – 1. ushramjan (I j) 2. hramjan (I weak j)
crumbs – drauhnos (f. O plur)
cry – hrops (m. A)
crystal – *eisastains (m. A)
cube – 1. *kubus (m. U) 2. *kwbus (m. U)
cubit – aleina (f. O)
cuckoo bird – *gauks (m. A)
cultural – *biuhtje (lit. Of the customs)
culture – 1. *kunjahaidus (m. U) (lit. tribe-manner) 2. *biuhtja (n. Ja) (lit. customs)
cup – stikls (m. A), ~ of water = stikls (m. A) watin
cupboard – *armali (n. Ja) (W. E.)
custom – 1. biuhti (n. Ja), according to the ~ = bi biuhtja 2. biuhts (adj. A)
cut, to – maitan (I red), ~ off = usmaitan (I red)
cymbal – klismo (f. N)
Czech – 1. *Tsjaiks (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Tsjaikisks (adj. A)
Czech republic – *Tsjaikaland (n. A)
Dalmatia – Dalmatia (f. Declined as O)
Damascian – Damasks (adj. A)
Damascus – Damasko (f. N)
daily – 1. sinteino (adv) 2. sinteins (adj. A) 3. seiteins (adj. A)
damnation – afdomeins (f. I/O)
dance – laiks (m. A)
dance, to – plinsjan (I i weak)
Dane – *Dans (m. I)
Danish – 1. *Daniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Danisks (adj. A)
danger – 1. bireikei (f. N) (the state of being in danger) 2. sleiþei (f. N) (potential external harm or destruction)
dangerous – sleiþs (adj. I/Ja) (declined as -ja stem mostly)
Danube – *Donaweis (m. Ja)
dare, to – anananþjan (I weak)
dark – *riqizeins (adj. A)
darkness – riqis (n. A)
dart – arhvazna (f. O)
darts – arhvaznos (f. O)
data – *data (n. A plural), big ~ = mikila (adj. A plural) *data (n. A plural)
database – *datahuzd (n. A)
dative – *dateibus (m. U)
daughter – dauhtar (f. R)
day – dags (m. A), daily = daga hvammeh, ~ by ~ = daga jah daga, every ~ = dags hindar daga (as a continuation of days in which something happens), the eighth ~ = ahtaudogs (adj. A), the next ~ = afardags (m. A), to~ = himma daga,
deacon – diakaunus (m. U)
deafto become ~ = afdaubnan (IV weak)
deafness – 1. daubiþa (f. O) 2. daubei (f. N)
death – dauþus (m. U), appointed to ~ = dauþubleis (adj. Ja)
debt – skuld (n. A)
debtor – 1. skula (m. N) 2. faihuskula (m. N) (Only occurs once)
deceit – liutei (f. N)
deceitfullness – afmarzeins (f. I/O)
deceive, to – 1. afairzjan (I weak), he ~s himself = sis silbin fraþjamarzeins ist 2. usluton (II weak)
declaration – insahts (f. I)
decree – gagrefts (f. I)
deep – diups (adj. A)
deepness – diupei (f. N)
defend, to – gawitan (pret-pres)
defiled, to be – bisaulnan (IV weak)
deliver, to – undredan (V abl red)
demon – 1. unhulþo (f. N)
demonological – *unhulþaleis (adj. A)
demonologist – 1. *unhulþaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *unhulþaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
demonology – *unhulþaleisei (f. N)
Denmark – Danimarka (f. O)
dentist – *tunþulekeis (m. Ja)
deny, to – afaikan (VII)
depart, to – 1. afleiþan (abl. I) 2. aftiuhan (II abl)
departure – diswiss (f. I)
deposit – wadi (n. Ja)
descend, to – gasteigan (I abl)
desert – 1. auþida (f. O) 2. auþeis (adj. Ja)
desire – 1. lustus (m. U) 2. gairnei (f. N)
desire, to – luston (II weak) + gen (as in feeling lust for another person)
desirous – gairns (adj.)
desolate – ainakls (adj. A)
despise, to – frakunnan (pret-pres) + dat.
destruction – fralusts (f. I)
devil – 1. diabaulus (m. U) (the devil) 2. unhulþo (f. N) (a devil)
dictionary – (neol) *waurdabokos (f. O)
die, to – 1. gaswiltan (III abl)
difference – 1. gaskaideins (f. I/O) 2. anþarleikei (f. N) (only in skeireins)
different – missaleiks (adj. A)
difficult – 1. aglus (adj. U) 2. agluba (adv)
diligence – usdaudei (f. N)
diminishing – wanains (f. I)
dinner – undaurnimats (m. I)
discouragement – unlustus (m. U)
dishonour – unswerei (f. N)
disobedience – ufarhauseins (f. I/O)
disorderly – ungatewiþs (past-perf)
dispensation – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
disposed – garaiþs (adj. A)
disputed – *andsakans (part-perf)
disputer – sokareis (m. Ja)
disregard, to – ~ life = ufarmunnon (II weak) saiwalai
distaff – *rukka (m. N)
distress – aggwiþa (f. O)
ditch – dals (m. Noun)
division – missaqiss (f. I) (in opinion between people)
divorce, to – afsatjan (I weak)
divorcement – afsateins (f. I/O)
doctor – laisareis (m. Ja), ~ of the law = witodalaisareis (m. Ja)
doctrine – laiseins (f. I/O)
dominion – fraujinassus (m. U)
donkey – assilus (m. U)
doomsday – *stauadags (m. A)
doubting – tweifleins (f. I/O)
download, to – *ufarbairan (IV abl)
dragma – drakma (m. N)
dragon – 1. *waurms (m. A) 2. *draka (m. An)
dream – 1. *swifns (m. A) 2. *draums (m. A)
dream, to – *draumjan (heavy i weak), I dreamed = mik draumida
drink, to – drigkan (III abl)
drugs – *lubi (n. Ja)
drunk, to be – anadrigkan (III abl) + dat
drunkard – afdrugkja (m. N)
drunkenness – drugkanei (f. N)
dry – þaursus (adj. U)
dryad (wood-dweller) – *widugauja (m. N)
duchess – *harjatugo (f. N)
Dublin – *Swartaswumfsl (n. A)
duke – *harjatuga (m. N)
dust – stubjus (m. U)
Dutch – 1. *niþralandja (m. N) 2. *niþralandisks (adj. A)
dwarf – *dwairgs (m. A)
dying – dauþeins (f. I/O)
eager – gairns (adj.)
eagle – ara (m. N)
ear – auso (n. N), ~ of corn = ahs (n. A)
earl – *airls (m. A)
earlier – airis
early – air
earnest – wadi (n. Ja)
earth – airþa (f. O)
earthquake – reiro (f. N)
earthy – 1. airþeins (adj. A) 2. airþakunds (adj. A) (only occurs once in the skeireins)
easier – raþiza (Comp.)
east – 1. *austrs (m. A) 2. *austra- (adj.), from the ~ = *austana, in the ~ = *austar, to the ~ = *austar
eastwards – *austar
easy – azets (adj. A)
eat, to – matjan (I j weak)
eclipse – solar ~ = sunnins riqis (n. A), lunar ~ = menins riqis (n. A)
Edda – *Izdo (f. N)
edification – gatimreins (f. I/O)
eel – *els (m. A)
egg – *addjis (n. A)
either~ … or = andizuh … aiþþau
elbow – *aleinabuga (m. N)
elder – 1. alþeis (adj. Ja) 2. praizbwtairei (f. N) (from jewish religion)
election – gawaleins (f. I/O)
electron – *elaiktraun (n.)
electronics – *elaiktraunika (n. A plural)
element – stafs (m. I) (f changes to b in gen. and dat. Sing. and all plural forms)
elf – *albs (m. A)
email – 1. *e-bokos (f. O plural) (a mail itself) 2. *waurdasandja (f. O) (e-mail service) (lit. word-sender) 3. *waurdjo (f. Jon) (e-mail service) (lit. worder)
embassador – to be ~ = airinon (II weak)
emerald – *smaragdus (m. U)
emotion – *ahins (undeclined) drobna (m. N)
emperor – kaisar (m. A)
empty – laus (adj. A), with ~ hands = laushandus (adj. U)
end – andeis (m. Ja)
endless – 1. andalaus 2. andilaus (adj. A)
endure, to – usbeidan (I abl) + acc
enemy – fijands (m. Nd)
energy – *mahts (f. I)
England – land (n. A) *aggile
English – *Aggils (adj. A)
Englishman – *Aggils (m. I)
enlighten, to – inliuhtjan (I weak i)
Enlightment – *inliuhteins (f. I/O)
enmity – fijaþwa (f. O)
enough – it is ~ = ganah
enriched, to be – gabignan (IV weak)
envy – neiþ (n. A)
equality – ibnassus (m. U)
error – 1. airzei (f. N) 2. airziþa (f. O)
escape, to – unþaþliuhan (II abl) + acc
Esperantist – *Aispairantistus (m. U)
Esperanto – *Aispairanto (f. N)
estate – 1. low ~ = hnaiweins (f. I/O) 2. *oþal (n. A)
eternal – aiweins (adj. A)
eternity – 1. aiws (m. A/I) (accusative plural declines as aiwins, the rest as an a-stem) 2. ajukduþs (f. I)
Europe – *aiwropa (f. O)
European – 1. (noun) *Aiwropus (m. U/I) 2. *aiwropisks (adj. A)
evangelist – aiwaggelista (m. N)
evening – andanahti (n. Ja)
everlasting – aiweins (adj. A)
evermore – framwigis
every – 1. hvarjis (m.) (dat. = hvarjammeh, acc. = hvarjanoh) 2. hvarjatoh (n.) (gen. = hvarjizuh, dat. = hvarjammeh) 3. *hvarjoh (f.) (gen. = *hvarjizozuh, dat. = *hvarjaih acc. = hvarjoh) 4. in ~ thing = in allamma
everywhere – hvaruh
evil – unþiuþ (n. A)
exalt, to – ushauhjan (I i)
examine, to – ussokjan (I i weak)
example – frisahts (f. I)
exceed, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
exclude, to – usletan (V red abl)
exclusion – *uslet (n. A)
excess – usstiurei (f. N)
except – alja + dat
excuse oneself, to – 1. sik faurqiþanana/a haban, (m) excuse me = habai mik faurqiþanana (f) habai mik faurqiþana 2. sunjon (II weak)
exercise – usþroþeins (f. I/O)
experiment – gakusts (f. I)
explanation – skeireins (f. I/O)
extraordinary – ussindo
eye – augo (n. N), evil ~ = augo unsel, ~ of a needle = þairko (n. N), with one ~ = haihs (adj. A)
eyeliner – *augaswartis (n. A)
eyewitness – silbasiuneis (m. Ja)
fable – spill (n. A)
face – 1. ludja (f. Jo) 2. wlits (noun)
fainted – afdauiþs (part-perf)
faith – galaubeins (f. I/O)
faithful – galaubeins (adj. A)
falcon – *habuks (m. A)
fall – drus (m. Noun) (dative singular = drusa)
fall, to – 1. driusan (II abl), ~ down = atdriusan (II abl), ~ from = usdriusan (II abl), ~ upon = disdriusan (II abl) + acc 2. walwison (II weak), ~ on the ground = ana airþa walwison (II weak)
fallow – *falws (adj. Wa)
fame – doms (m. A)
familiar – biuhts (adj. A)
family – 1. gards (m. I) (literally: house) 2. fadreins (f. I) (literally: lineage)
famine – huhrus (m. U)
fan – winþiskauro (f. N) (to blow wind)
farao – farao (m. N)
farewellto bid ~ = andqiþan (V abl)
fasting – lausqiþrei (f. N)
fate – *waurþs (f. I)
father – 1. atta (m. N) 2. fadar (m. R) (Only occurs once and used for an earthly father, but atta can be used for an earthly father too.)
fatigue, to – *afdojan (I weak)
favoured – audahafts (adj. A)
fear – agis (n. A)
feast – dulþs (f. I)
feather – *fiþra (f. O)
feeble – gamaiþs (adj.)
feebleminded – grindafraþjis (adj. Ja)
fellowship – gamainei (f. N)
female – qineins (adj. A)
Fenrir (wolf myth.) – *fanareis (m. Ja)
fetters – þo ana fotum eisarna (n. A)
fever – 1. brinno (f. N) 2. heito (f. N)
few – faus (adj. A)
fiend – fijands (m. Cons.)
fiery – funisks (adj. A)
fig – smakka (m. N)
fig tree – smakkabagms (m. A)
fight, to – 1. jiukan (III weak) 2. haifstjan (I i weak)»
(only occurs once) 3. weihan (I abl)
fighting – waihjo (f. N)
fill, to – fulljan (I i weak), get filled, to – fullnan (IV weak)
film – *film (n. A)
filthiness – bisauleins (f. I/O)
filthy – ~ lucre = aglaitigastalds (adj. A)
find, to – bigitan (V abl)
finger – figgrs (m. A)
Finland – *Finnahaiþi (f. Jo)
Finn – *Finnahaiþs (m. A)
Finnish – *Finnisks (adj. A)
fire – fon (noun) (gen. Sing. = funins, dat. Sing. = funin)
first – 1. frumist 2. fruma (adj. A weak)
firstfruit – ufarskafts (f. I)
fish – fisks (m. A)
fisher – fiskja (m. N)
fit – 1. gatils (adj. A) 2. fagrs (adj. A)
fit, to – gamanwjan (I i weak)
fitly – gatemiba
five – fimf
flag – *fana (m. N)
flee, to – afþliuhan (II abl) (perfective)
flesh – mammo (f. N) (human meat) 2. mimz (noun) (of meat to eat)
flight – þlauhs (m. I)
flock – aweþi (n. Ja)
flood – 1. ahwa (f. O) 2. garunjo (f. N) 3. midjaswipains (f. I) (natural disaster)
flood, to – swipan (III)
floor – gaþrask (n. A)
flower – bloma (m. N)
flower, to – *blauan (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
flute – to play ~ = swiglon (II weak)
fly, to – *fliugan (II)
foam – hvaþo (f. N)
follow, to – afarlaistjan (I i weak) + dat
follower – galaista (m. N)
foolish – unfroþs (adj. A)
foolishness – 1. unwiti (n. Ja) 2. niuklahei (f. N)
foot – fotus (m. U)
football – *fotuballa (m. N)
for – 1. (For as intention) dative use, eg. For him = imma 2. faur (for something) 3. in þis (because) 4. auk (only in second or third position) (synonym of because as giving a reason)
forbid, to – warjan (i weak j)
forefathers – airizans (Comp. Weak)
forest – *widus (m. U)
forget, to – ufarmunnon (II weak)
forgiveness – fralet (n. A)
fork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
form, to – gadigan (abl I)
formed – garaiþs (adj. A)
fornication – 1. kalkinassus (m. U) 2. horinassus (m. U)
forsake, to – bileiþan (I)
forum – *maþl (n. A) (online too)
found, to – gasuljan (I j weak)
foundation – 1. gaskafts (f. I) (as in foundation of the world) 2. *gasuleins (f. I/O) 3. grunduwaddjus (m. U) (stone wall)
fountain – brunna (m. N)
four – fidwor, dat. = fidworim
fox – fauho (f. N)
fragment – gabruko (f. O)
France – *Fragkaland (n. A)
free – freis (adj. Ja), ~ from = freis (adj. Ja) + gen, for ~ / ~ of charge = arwjo (adv.)
freedom – 1. freihals (m. A) 2. frijei (f. N) (only one occurence)
freeman – fralets (m. Noun)
freemason – 1. *freitimrja (m. N) 2. *frijatimrja (m. N)
freemasonry – *freitimreins (f. I/O) 2. *frijatimreins (f. I/O)
Freyja – frauja (f. O)
Freyr – fraujis (m. Ja)
freeze, to – friusan (II)
Friday – *fraujins dags (m. A)
friend – 1. (m.) frijonds (m. Nd) 2. (f.) frijondi (f. Jo)
fright – agis (n. A)
frighten, to – usagjan (I weak j)
frog – *frusks (m. A)
frost – frius (n. A)
fruit – akran (n. A), to bring ~ = gawrisqan (III abl)
fruitless – akranalaus (adj. A)
fulfilling – usfulleins (f. I/O)
full – fulls (adj. A) + gen (gen. is used when translated as full of)
fuller – wullareis (m. Ja)
fullness – fullo (f. N)
furtherance – framgahts (f. I)
future – 1. *anawairþ (n. A) 2. anawairþs (adj. A)
gain – faihugawaurki (n. Ja) (gain in possession)
gain, to – gageigan (III weak) ~ from = bifaihon (II weak)
Galatia – Galatia (f. O)
Galatian – Galateis (m. I)
Galilee – Galeilaius (m. U/I)
garbage – maihstus (m. U)
garden – aurtigards (m. I)
garment – snaga (m. N)
gate – 1. daur (n. A) 2. dauro (f. N)
gather, to – lisan (V abl.)
gathering – gaqumþs (m. I)
gay – *samalustja (m. N) (homosexual)
Geat – *gauts (m. A)
genealogy – gabaurþiwaurd (n. A)
genitive – *gainiteibus (m. U)
gentle – qairrus (adj. U)
gentleness – 1. selei (fu. N) 2. mukamodei (f. N)
geological – *airþaleis (adj. A)
geologist – 1. *airþaleis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *airþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
geology – *airþaleisei (f. N)
German – *gairmanisks (adj. A)
Germanism – *Gairmanismus (m. U)
Germany – *Gairmanja (f. O)
ghost – ahma (m. N) (disembodied spirit)
giant – 1. *þauris (m. A) 2. *wrisja (m. N) (enormous)
gift – giba (f. O)
gird, to – bigairdan (III abl)
girdle – gairda (f. O)
girl – mawilo (f. N)
give, to – giban (V abl) + dat
giver – gibands (m. Nd)
glad – to be ~ = faginon (II weak)
gladly – gabaurjaba
gladness – swegniþa (f. O)
glitter, to – glitmunjan (I weak)
glorify, to – gasweran (III weak)
glory – wulþus (m. U)
glove – *lauhs (m. A)
glutton – afetja (m. N)
gnushing – krusts (m. Noun)
go, to – gaggan (III red), ~ before (someone/something) = faurbigaggan (III red) ~ with = miþgaggan (III red)
goal – mundrei (f. N)
goat – gaits (m. I), ~’s milk = gaitimiluks (f. Cons.)
God – 1. Guþ (m. A) (Abrahamic God) 2. Guþ (n. A) (other God then christian or jewish one), the form of ~ = gudaskaunei (f. N) 3. *ansus (m. U) (used for Germanic Gods)
goddess – *gudeinja (f. Jo)
godless – gudalaus (adj. A)
godliness – gagudei (f. N)
godly – 1. gudisks (adj. A) 2. gaguþs (adj. A)
gold – gulþ (n. A)
golden – gulþeins (adj. A)
good – goþs (adj. A)
goodness – selei (f. N)
goose – *gans (f. Cons.)
gospel – aiwaggeljo (f. N)
Goth – Guta (m. A)
Gothic – 1. *Gutisks (adj. A) 2. *~ language – Gutiska (adj. A) razda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O)
Gothiscandza – *Gutskaþja (f. Jo)
Goths – Gutþiuda (f. O) among the ~ – ana Gutþiudai
governor – kindins (m. A)
grace – ansts (f. I)
gracious – hulþs (adj. A)
grains – *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
grandfather – *awa (m. N)
grandma – awo (f. N)
grandmother – awo (f. N)
grandpa – *awa (m. N)
grape – weinabasi (n. Ja)
grass – hawi (n. Ja)
grave – 1. hlaiw (n. A) 2. gariuþs (adj. A)
graveyard – *nawistre gards (m. I)
great – mikils (adj. A)
greater – maiza (Comp.)
greatness – mikilei (f. N)
Greece – *Krekaland (n. A)
greed – 1. faihufrikei (f. N) 2. faihugairnei (f. N) 3. faihugeiro (f. N)
Greek – Kreks (m. A)
green – *groneis (adj. Ja)
Greenland – *Groniland (n. A)
Greenlandic – 1. *Gronilandisks (adj. A) 2. *Gronilandiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) (language)
greeting – goleins (f. I/O)
grey – 1. *grews (adj. A) 2. *graus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
groan, to – inrauhtjan (I weak i)
group – 1. kuni (n. Ja) (tribe or subdivision of hierarchy) 2. kubitus (m. U) (group around table)
grow, to – liudan (II abl) ~ older = usalþan (III red)
hail – hagl (n. A)
half – 1. halba (f. O) 2. halbs (adj. A)
hand – handus (f. U)
hang, to – hahan (III red), ~ oneself = ushahan sik (III red)
happen, to – wairþan (III)
harbor – *habana (f. O)
hard – 1. hardus (adj. U) 2. aglus (adj. U) (synonym of difficult)
hardly – 1. harduba (adv) (adverb of hard) 2. agluba (synonym of difficult) 3. halisaiw (barely)
hardness – ~ of heart = harduhairtei (f. N)
haste – with ~ = sniumundo
hawk – *habuks (m. A)
heal, to – leikinon (II weak)
healed, to be – gahailnan (IV weak)
healing – leikinassus (m. U)
hear, to – 1. hausjan (I i weak) 2. hausjon (II weak)
heart – hairto (n. N), hardness of ~ = harduhairtei (f. N)
heaven – himins (m. A) (never with article, accompanying adjective always declines strongly)
heavenly – himinakunds (adj. A)
Hebrew – 1. Haibraius (m. U/I) (person) 2. *Haibraiwisks (adj. A), ~ language = *Haibraiwiska (adj. A) razda (f. O)
hedge – faþa (f. O)
heel – fairzna (f. O)
height – hauhei (f. N)
heir – 1. arbja (m. N) 2. arbinumja (m. N)
heiress – arbjo (f. N)
hell – 1. gaiainna (noun) (Greek) 2. halja (f. O), to ~ with you = *Diabaulus þuk nimai
hello – 1. hails + voc (to a man), haila + voc (to a woman) 2. Golja þuk 3. Fagino
helmet – hilms (m. A)
help, to – 1. hilpan (III abl) + gen. 2. niþan (V abl) + acc.
Helsinki – *Halsiggefurs
hen – *hano (f. N)
herb – gras (n. A)
herd – hairda (f. O)
Herding (myth.) – *hazdiggs (m. A)
here – her
Herodian – Herodianus (m. U/I)
Herule – *Airuls (m. A)
hero – *haliþs / *haluþs (m. Cons.)
hew, to – ~ out = ushulon (II weak)
hi – see: hello
hide, to – affilhan (III abl)
hidden – 1. analaugns (adj. I) 2. fulgins (adj. A)
Hierapolis – Iairapaulei (noun)
high – hauhs (adj. A)
higher – 1. hauhis 2. auhuma (comp. Weak)
highway – wigs (m. A)
hill – hlain (n. A)
hill-country – bairgahei (f. N)
him – imma (dat) ina (acc)
hinder, to – analatjan (I j weak)
hip – hups (m. I)
hireling – asneis (m. Ja)
his – is, seinis (gen. M/N), seinaizos (gen. F), seinamma (dat. M/N), seinai (dat. F), seinana (acc. M), seinaize (gen. M/N pl.), seinaizo (gen. F pl.), seinaim (dat. Pl.) seinans (acc. M. Pl.) seina (acc. N. Pl.), seinos (acc. F. Pl.) ( Sein- is used to refer back to a 3rd person subject. In these cases is (‘his’) or izos (‘her’) would also work. Is and izos would be necessary if the noun they refer back to is not the subject of the sentence. Example: Hunds meins beitiþ bain sein. My dog bites his bone. Hunds anþar beitiþ bain is (þatei ist bain hundis meinis). Another dog bites his bone (that is my dog’s bone). Sein- = ones own, is = of someone else) Explained by Iaihime
history – *spill (n. A)
hither – hidre
Hlin (myth.) – *Hleins (m. A)
Hoder (myth.) – *Haflus (m. U)
hole – þairko (f. N)
holiness – weihiþa (f. O)
holocaust – alabrunsts (f. I)
holy – 1. weihs (adj. A)
home – gards (m. I), to take ~ = in gard tiuhan, at ~ = anahaimeis (adj. Ja), far from ~ = afhaimeis (adj. Ja)
homosexual – *samalustja (m. N)
honesty – gariudi (n. Ja)
honestly – garedaba
honey – miliþ (n. A), bee ~ = biwamiliþ (n. A)
honour – *swerei (f. N)
honourable – 1. galaufs (adj. A) 2. gaguds (adj)
hope – 1. wens (f. I) 2. lubains (f. I)
horse – *marhs (m. A)
hospitable – gastigoþs (adj. A)
hospitality – gastigodei (f. N)
host – wairdus (m. U)
hostile – andaneiþs (adj. A)
hotel – *haribairgo (f. N)
hour – hweila (f. O)
house – 1. razn (n. A) 2. gards (m. I) (also used as family)
hovercraft – *ufarwataskip (n. A)
how – 1. (int.) Hvaiwa 2. Hvan ( as in: how narrow or how much, how nice)
human – manna (m. N)
humanity – manniskodus (m. U)
hundredfold – •r• falþs (adj. A)
Hungarian – 1. *Hungarus (m. U/I) 2. *Hungariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Hungarisks (adj. A)
Hungary – *Hungarja (f. O)
hunger – 1. gredus (m. U) 2. huhrus (m. U)
hungry – gredags (adj. A)
hunny – miliþ (n. A)
hurry, to – sniwan (V abl)
husband – aba (m. N)
hypocrite – 1. liuts (adj. A) 2. liuta (m. N)
I – ik (only used for comparison or emphasis)
ice – *eis (n. A)
Iceland – (neol.) eisaland (n. A)
idea – mitons (f. I)
ideological – *mitonileis (adj. A)
ideology – *mitonileisei (f. N)
idiot – 1. (m.) dwala (m. N) 2. (f.) dwalo (f. N)
idolatry – galiugagude skalkinassus (m. U) (first part undeclined)
if – 1. ~, indeed (expected answer is yes) = jabai 2. (Expected answer is no), nibai 3. (Rhetorical) Ibai
illuminate, to – galiuhtjan (I weak)
illumination – *galiuhteins (f. I/O)
image – manleika (m. N)
imagination – gahugds (f. I)
immediately – suns
immortal – unriurs (adj. I)
immortality – undiwanei (f. N)
impetuous – gaheis (adj. Ja)
importance – wulþrs (f. I)
important – wulþrais (genitive of sing. worth), it is ~ = wulþrais ist
imprisonment – karkara (f. O)
incinerate, to – *frabrannjan
incontinency – ungahobains (f. I)
increase – uswahst (f. I)
increase, to – biaukan (VII)
independance – freihals (m. A)
infirmity – unmahts (f. I)
inheritance – arbi (n. Ja)
inheritor – arbinumja (m. N)
injure, to – holon (II weak)
injustice – ungaraihtei (f. N)
ink – *swartis (n. A)
inspiration – ahmateins (f. I/O)
instruction – talzeins (f. I/O)
insult – ganaiteins (f. I/O)
insult, to –  (ga)naitjan (I weak i)
insurrection – auhjodus (m. U)
intention – muns (m. I)
intercession – liteins (f. I/O)
interest – leihwa (f. O) (finance)
international – *ufarmarkeis (adj. Ja)
internet – (neol.) *miþnati (n. Ja)
intreaty – usbloteins (f. I/O)
invisible – *unanasiuns (adj. I)
inwardly – innaþro
iron – eisarneins (adj. A)
island – hulms (m. A)
Israel – Israel (m. A)
Israeli – 1. Israelitus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Israelisks (adj. A)
Italian – 1. *Italus (m. U/I) 2. *Italiska (adj. A) razda 3. *Italisks (adj. A)
Italy – *Italja (f. O)
itch, to – suþjan (I weak j)
jacket – paida (f. O)
Japan – (neol.) Iapan (m. A)
jealous, to be – aljinon (II weak)
Jericho – Eiairiko (f. N)
Jerusalem – Iairusalem (same in all cases except for genitive Iairusalems)
jesting – saldra (f. O)
Jesuit – *Iesuitus (m. U)
Jesus – Iesus (m. A)
Jew – Iudaius (m. U/I)
jewel – precious ~ = *airknastains (m. A)
Jewish – iudaiwisks (adj. A)
job – arbaiþs (f. I)
join, to – ~ together = gagatilon (II weak)
Jordan – Iaurdanus (m. U/I)
journey – wratodus (m. U)
joy – faheþs (f. I)
Judea – Iudaia (f. O)
judge – staua (m. N)
judgement – staua (f. O)
jug – aurkeis (m. Ja)
just – 1. (only) þatainei 2. ~ as = swaswe 3. goþs (adj. A) (just as in good)
justify, to – (ga)sunjon (II weak)
keep, to – bairgan (III abl) + dat (as in to keep something)
key – *lukils (m. A)
keyboard – *bokabaurd (n. A) (computer)
kill, to – afslahan (VI)
king – þiudans (m. A)
kingdom – þiudinassus (m. U)
kiss – frijons (f. I)
kiss, to – kukjan (I) + dat
kiwi – 1. *kiwi (n. Ja) 2. *keiwei (f. N)
knee – kniu (n. Wa)
kneeling – *knussus (m. U)
knife – 1. *kneifs (m. A) 2. *kneiba (m. N) 3. *sahs (n. A)
knock, to – *knukon (II weak)
know, to – kunnan (prt-prs)
knowledge – kunþi (n. Ja)
labour – arbaiþs (f. I)
lack – 1. gaidw (n. A) 2. waninassus (m. U)
laugh, to~ at = bihlahjan (VI)
lake – marisaiws (m. Noun)
lamb – 1. lamb (n. A) 2. wiþrus (m. U) (only one occurence) 3. *lambamimz (noun) (To eat as flesh)
lame – halts (adj. A)
lament, to – 1. qainon (II weak) 2. gaunon (II weak)
land – land (n. A), ancestral ~ = *oþal (n. A), ~ which one owns = haimoþli (n. Ja)
Laodicea – Laudeikaia (noun)
lasciviousness – aglaitei (f. N)
last – 1. aftumists (adj. A) 2. spedumists (adj. A) 3. spediza (Comp.), only in: ist so spedeizei airziþa wairsizei þizai frumein = the last error shall be worst than the first 3. aftuma (comp.) (Of two)
late – seiþus (adj. U)
lately – *niujaba
latrine – *gaggs (m. A)
law – witoþ (n. A), under the ~ = uf witoda, doctor of the ~ = witodalaisareis (m. Ja), giving of the ~ = witodis garaideins (f. I/O)
lawfulit is ~ = binah
lawless – witodalaus (adj. A)
lawyer – witodafasteis (m. Ja)
lay, to – ~ down = afhnaiwjan (I i weak)
laying~ of the hands = analageins (f. I/O)
lead, to – tiuhan (II abl), ~ up = ustiuhan (II abl), ~ about = bitiuhan (II abl)
leaf – laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
learned – *uslaisiþs (past-perf), never ~ = unuslaisiþs (past-perf)
least – 1. minnists (adj. Superl.) 2. smalista (suprl.) (Weak)
leather – filleins (adj. A)
leave, to~ with = bileiþan (I abl.)
leaven – beist (n. A)
left – hleiduma (Comp.)
length – laggei (f. N)
leper – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
lesbian – *samalustjo (f. N)
less – 1. mins 2. minniza (Comp.)
let, to – letan (V abl red) ~ down = athahan (III red)
letter – boka (f. O)
library – 1. *bokarazn (n. A) 2. *bokahus (n. A)
lick – 1. *bilaigons (f. I) 2. *bilaigoþus (m. U)
lick, to – bilaigon (II weak)
lie, to – ligan (V abl) (to lie down somewhere)
Liechtenstein – (neol) *Liuhtastains (m. A)
light – 1. liuhaþ (n. A) 2. liuhadei (f. N) 3. leihts (adj. A)
light, to – tandjan (I weak i)
lighthouse – *liuhadakelikn (n. A)
lightning – lauhmuni (f. Jo)
like – 1. swa (As in: Just like him) 2. galeiks (adj. A) (As in: It is like/resembles)
like, to – galeikan (III) + dat (thing which is liked, example: þata galeikaiþ mis = I like it, literally: That pleases me)
likewise – samaleiko
linen – ~ cloth = lein (n. A)
linguist – 1. *razdaleis (m. A) 2. *razdaleisa (f. O)
linguistics – *razdaleisei (f. N)
list – wiko (f. N)
literacy – *bokaleisei (f. N)
literature – *bokaleisei (f. N)
liver – *miltja
lock, to – lukan (II abl), (he/she locked = lauk)
locust – þramstei (f. N)
Loki (myth.) – 1. *lauha (m. N) 2. *luka (m. N)
load, to – *usbriggan (III abl) (digital)
loin – hups (m. I)
lonely, to become – gaainan (III weak)
long – laggs (adj. A)
longsuffering – usbeisnei (f. N)
look, to – 1. saihvan (V abl) 2. ~ around = ussaihvan (V abl), wlaiton (II weak)
loop – wruggo (f. N)
loot – *raupa (f. O)
lord – frauja (m. N)
lose, to – fraliusan (II abl) + dat
loss – sleiþa (f. O)
lot – 1. a ~ of = filu + gen 2. hlauts (m. A), ~ imma urran = he was chosen by lot
love – frijaþwa (f. O), brotherly ~ = broþrulubo (f. N)
love, to – frijon (II weak) + acc
lump – daigs (m. Noun)
lust – lustus (m. U)
Luxemburg – (neol) *leitilabaurgs (f. Cons)
Macedonia – Makaidonja (f. O)
Macedonian – Makidons (m. I)
machine – *sarwa (n. Wa)
madto be ~ = dwalmon (II weak)
madness – unfrodei (f. N)
magazine – *leihtos bokos (f. O plural)
Magdeburg – (neol) Magaþsbaurgs (f. Cons)
magic – lubjaleisei (f. N)
magical – *lubjaleis (adj. A)
magically – *lubjaleisaba
magpie – *ago (f. N)
maimed – gamaiþs (adj. A)
make-up – *smikwa (f. O) (Italian = smeco) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
male – 1. gumein (n. A) 2. gumakunds (adj. A)
malice – balwawesei (f. N)
man – 1. manna (m. Cons) (plural nom + acc = mans) (human in general) 2. guma (m. N) (masculine person) 3. wair (m. A)
manger – uzeta (m. N)
manifestationby ~ = bairhtein
mankind – manaseþs (f. I)
manner – sidus (m. U), ~ of life = usmet (n. A)
mark – staks (m. I)
market – maþl (n. A) black ~ = swart (adj. A) maþl (n. A)
marmelade – *akranamimz (noun) miþ sakkara
marshall – *marhaskalks (m. A)
marvellous – sildaleiks (adj. A)
Marxism – *Marksismus (m. U)
Marxist – *Marksistus (m. U)
matterdoesn’t ~ to me = mis wulþrais nist
maybe – aufto
me – 1. (Dat) mis 2. (Acc) mik
mead – *midus (m. U) (loanword in Ancient Greek)
meal – mats (m. I)
mean, to – 1. (to signify, what a word means) wisan, gaskeirjan (I) 2. (to intend to) munnan
measure – 1. mitaþs (f. Cons.) 2. mitadjo (f. N)
measure, to – mitan (V abl)
meat – mimz (noun)
mechanical – *maikanikisks (adj. A)
mechanics – *maikanika (n. A plural)
media – 1. *maidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *meidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
mediator – midumonds (m. Nd)
meditate, to – sis siþon (II weak)
meet, to – wiþragaggan (III red) + acc.
member – 1. gadaila (m. N) (of group of people) 2. liþus (of body) 3. ~ of the tribe = inkunja (m. N)
memorial – gamunds (f. I)
memory – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
merciful – bleiþs (adj)
merciful, to be – bleiþjan (I weak i)
mercy – 1.bleiþei (f. N) 2. mildiþa (f. O) 3. gableiþeins (f. I/O)
message – waurd (n. A)
messenger – airus (m. U)
metal – 1. *maital (n. A) (W. E.) 2. *maitaleins (adj. A)
metallic – *maitaleins (adj. A)
midst – midjis (adj. Ja)
mile – rasta (f. O)
milk – miluks (f. Cons)
milky way – *milukswigs (m. A)
millstone – asiluqairnus (f. U)
mind – 1. gahugds (f. I) 2. aha (m. N) 3. hugs (m. Noun) (only occurs once) 4. of one ~ = samafraþjis (adj. Ja)
minister – andbahts (m. A)
ministery – *andbahti (n. Ja)
minstrel – swiglja (m. N)
miracle – fauratani (n. Ja) (as a sign)
mirror – skuggwa (m. N)
miserable – arms (adj. A)
mistakento be ~ = sis silbin/silbon fraþjamarzeins wisan
mistletoe – *mistils (m. A)
moccasin – skohs (m. A)
mock, to – bilaikan (I red)
moderation – anawiljei (f. N)
modest – hrains (adj. I)
moisture – qrammiþa (f. O)
moon – mena (m. N)
Monday – *menins dags (m. A)
month – menoþs (f. Cons), dat. Pl. = menoþum
money – 1. skatts (m. A)
moneychanger – skattja (m. N)
moral – godei (f. N)
morning – 1. maurgins (m. Noun) 2. uhtwo (f. N)
mortality – *diwanei (f. N)
mortgage – wadi (n. Ja)
moth – *malo (n. N)
mother – aiþei (f. N), wife’s ~ = swaihro (f. N)
mountain – fairguni (n. Ja)
mourn, to – hiufan (II abl)
mourning – gaunoþus (m. U)
mouth – munþs (m. Noun)
move, to – inwagjan (I weak j) (move someone to do something)
movie – *film (n. A)
mr. – *Frauja (m. N)
mugwort – *bibauts
multimedia – 1. *managmaidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *managmeidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
multitude – 1. managei (f. N) 2. iumjo (f. N) 3. hiuhma (m. N)
murderer – manamaurþrja (m. N)
murmuring – birodeins (f. I/O)
muzzle, to – faurmuljan (I i weak) + acc
my – meins (possessive pronoun, always declined strongly)
mystery – runa (f. O)
mystical – *garunileiks (adj. A strong)
naked – naqaþs (adj. A)
nakedness – naqadei (f. N)
name – namo (n. N) (plural nom = namna, plural dat = namnam)
napkin – aurali (n. Ja)
Naples – *Napleis (I)
narrow – aggwus (adj. U)
nation – þiuda (f. O)
national – *innamarkeis (adj. Ja)
nature – wists (f. I), by ~ = wistai, wild by ~ = aljakuns (adj. A)
near – nehva
necessity – andawizn (f. I)
neck – 1. hals (m. Noun) 2. halsagga (m. N)
needle – neþla (f. O)
neglecting – unfreideins (f. I/O)
neighbour – garazno (f. N) (female neighbour) , garazna (m. N) (male neighbour, in plural both genders)
nest – sitls (m. A)
Netherlands – *niþralanda (n. A) (plural)
nettle – *nat(il)o (f. N)
network – *ganati (n. Ja)
neuron – *niuraun (n. A)
neutron – *niutraun (n. A)
nextthe ~ day = iftumin daga
new – niujis (adj. Ja)
newness – niujiþa (f. O)
news – spill (n. A)
Nibelungen – *hnibiluggos (m. A) (plural)
nickname – *ananamo (n. N)
nickname, to – ananamnjan (I i weak)
night – nahts (f. Cons), (in days and ~s = in dagam jah nahtam, normally dative plural is nahtim)
Niord (myth.) – *Nairþus (m. U)
noble – godakunds (adj. A)
noiseto make ~ = auhjon (II weak)
nominative – *nominateibus (m. U)
north – 1. *naurþrs (m. A) 2. *naurþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *naurþana, in the ~ = *naurþar, to the ~ = *naurþar
northwards – *naurþar
Norway – *Naurþrawigs (m. A)
noseto clear ones ~ = *snutjan
nourish up, to – alan (VI abl)
novice – *niujasatiþs (part-perf)
now – nu
number – raþjo (f. N)
oath – aiþs (m. A)
obedience – ufhauseins (f. I/O)
oblivion – ufarmaudei (f. N)
observation – atwitains (f. I)
observe, to – witan (III) + dative
Odin – *Wodans (m. A)
odour – dauns (f. I)
Oegir (myth.) – *Ogeis (m. Ja)
offend, to – afmarzjan (I i weak)
office – andbahti (n. Ja), ~ of the priest = gudjinassus (m. U)
officialcourt ~ / ~ person = *gardingus (m. U) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigothorum IX 2,8 & 2,9; XII 1,8)
offline – *afganatjis (adj. Ja)
often – ufta
oil – alew (n. A)
ointment – salbons (f. I)
old – fairneis (adj. Ja)
oldness – fairniþa (f. O)
olive – alew
olive tree – alewabagms (m. A)
omnibus – *allakarrahago (f. N) (W.E.)
on – (place) ana + dat
once – 1. simle (in the sense: once upon a time) 2. ainamma sinþa (one time)
one – ains (adj. A strong) 2. sums (one of people, so: one man = sums manna)
online – *anaganatjis (adj. Ja)
only – 1. þatainei (conjunction) (used as in: I only want ..) 2. ainaha (adj. A weak), the ~ son = sunus ainaha
open, to – uslukan (II abl), (he/she opened = uslauk)
opening – usluk (n. A)
openly – andaugjo
oppress, to – anapraggan (VII)
or – 1. þau (choice between two things) 2. aiþþau (choice between multiple things and other uses then in 1)
ordain, to – satjan (I j weak)
order – 1. tewa (f. O) 2. wiko (f. N), to set in ~ = atgaraihtjan (I i weak)
ordered – 1. garaiþs (adj. A) 2. *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
orderly – gatewiþs (past-perf)
ordinance – garaideins (f. I/O)
origin – ussateins (f. I/O)
Oslo – *Ansulauha
Ostrogoth – *Austraguta (m. N)
Ostrogothic – *Austragutisks (adj. A)
otherwise – aljaleikos (adv)
our – unsar (posessive pronoun, always strongly declined)
outer – hindumists (adj. Superl.)
outside – uta, from the ~ = utana + gen
oven – auhns (m. Noun)
overcharge, to – anakaurjan (I weak i)
overshadow, to – ufarskadwjan (I i weak)
ox – 1. auhsus (m. U) 2. auhsa (m. N) (only one occurence) 3. stiur (m. A)
page – *laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
pair – gajuk (n. A)
palace – rohsns (f. I)
palm~ of hand = lofa (noun)
pan – *patina (f. N) (W.E.)
pants – *broks (f. Cons.)
paper – *karta (f. O)
parable – gajuko (f. N)
parchment – maimbrana (m. N)
parent – berusi (m. Ja)
parents – berusjos (m. Ja) (plural)
part – dails (f. I)
partake, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
partiality – wiljahalþei (f. N)
participant – gamainja (m. N)
participate, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
participation – daila (f. O)
party – dulþs (f. I)
pass, to – usleiþan (I abl)
passover – 1. paska (feast) 2. pasxa (feast)
password – (neol) *gamotawaurd (n. A)
pastel – *wai(z)da (f. O)
pastry – *bakeins (f. I/O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
pasture – winja (f. Jo)
path – staiga (f. O)
patience – usþulains (f. I)
pay, to – usgildan (V abl)
peace – gawairþi (n. Ja)
peaceable – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peaceful – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peacock – *pawa (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
pedophilia – *barnalubo (f. N)
pedophile – 1. *barnalubja (m. N) (male) 2. *barnalubjo (f. N) (female)
penny – 1. assarjus (m. U) 2. kintus (m. U)
people – þiuda (f. O)
pepper – *pipr (n. A) (W. E)
perceive, to – gaumjan (I) + dat
perfect – 1. fullatojis (adj. Ja) 2. (adv) glaggwuba 3. fullawita (m. N)
perhaps – aufto
perilous – sleideis (adj. Ja)
perishing – riurei (f. N)
permission – *andlet (n. A)
permittedit is ~ = binah
persecute, to – wrikan (V abl)
persecution – 1. wrakja (f. Jo) 2. wraka (f. O) 3. wrekei (f. N)
persecutor – wraks (m. Noun)
person – manna (m. N)
persuasion – gakunds (f. I)
Pharisee – Fareisaius (m. U/I)
Phenician – fwnikisks (adj. A)
philosopher – 1. handugs (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. handuga (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
phoenix – *fonfugls (m. A)
physician – lekeis (m. Ja)
pillar – sauls (f. I)
pillow – waggareis (m. Ja)
pinnacle – gibla (m. N)
pipe, to – swiglon (II weak)
piper – 1. *swiglonds (m. Nd) 2. *swiglondi (f. Jo)
pitchfork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
pity, to – arman (III weak)
plague, to – balwjan (I weak)
plan – garehsns (f. I)
plant, to – satjan (I j weak)
pleasant – andanems (adj. A)
please, to – galeikan (III weak) + dat
pleasure – gabaurjoþus (m. U) in ~ = in azetjam
pledge, to – gawadjon (II weak)
plough – hoha (m. N)
plow, to – arjan (III red)
pluck, to – raupjan (I weak i)
poem – *liuþ (n. A)
poet – liudareis (m. Ja)
poison – *aitr (n. A)
Poland – *Paulaland (n. A)
Polish – 1. *paulisks (adj. A)p
police – *wardjans (m. N, plural of wardja)
police officer – 1. *wardja (m. N) 2. *wardjo (f. N)
political – *paulitikisks (adj. A) (W. E.)
politics – *paulitika (f. O) (W. E.)
pomp – wulþus (m. U)
pope – *papa (m. N)
pork – *sweinamimz (noun)
porter – 1. daurawards (m. A) 2. daurawarda (f. O)
Portugal – *Paurtukaljis (m. Ja)
possess, to – gastaldan (VII)
possessedone ~ with devils = daimonareis (m. Ja)
possession – gafreideins (f. I/O)
post – *waurd (n. A) (in forum or blog)
pot – 1. *aurkjus (m. U/I) 2. *aurkeis (m. Ja)
potter – kasja (m. N)
pour, to – giutan (II abl)
power – mahts (f. I)
praise, to – hazjan (I weak j)
pray, to – bidjan (V abl irregular), he/she prayed = baþ
prayer – bida (f. O)
preach, to – merjan (I i weak)
preacher – merjands (m. Nd)
preaching – mereins (f. I/O)
precept – anabusns (f. I)
predestinate, to – fauragaraidan (V abl red) (he/she predestinated = fauragarairoþ)
preeminence – frumadei (f. N)
preferable – þishun
pregnant woman – 1. inkilþo (f. N), being great with a child, to be pregnant = wisandei inkilþo 2. qiþuhafto (f. N)
prejudice – faurdomeins (f. O)
preparation – manwiþa (f. O)
prepared – manwus (adj. U)
present – anahaimeis (adj. Ja) (at home)
present, to – atsatjan (I i weak j)
presentation – *atsateins (f. I/O)
presbytery – praizbwtairei (f. N)
presider (liturgies) – faurstasseis (m. Ja)
press, to – anatrimpan (III abl)
pretence – inilo (f. N)
price – wairþ (m. A)
pride – hauhhairtei (f. N)
priest – gudja (m. N), chief ~ = ufargudja (m. N)
prince – reiks (m. Cons.)
print, to – *usmeljan (I i weak)
printer – *usmeljo (f. N)
priority – frumadei (f. N)
prison – karkara (f. O)
prisoner – bandja (m. N)
privacy – *sundraleikei (f. N)
private – *sundraleiks (adj. A strong)
privately – sundro
privy – *gaggs (m. A)
prize – sigislaun (n. A)
progress – framgahts (f. I)
problem – aglo (f. N)
profit – bota (f. O)
profitable – bruks (adj. A)
project – *faurawaurpa (f. O) (reconstructed by Tom de Herdt)
promise – gahait (n. A)
proof – kustus (m. U) ( as in a challenge)
prophet – praufetes (m. U/I)
prostitute – kalkjo (f. N)
prostitution – kalkinassus (m. U)
proton – *protaun (n.)
proud – hauhþuhts (adj. A)
proud-hearted – hauhhairts (adj. A)
provoke, to – ushaitan (I red)
prudence – inahei (f. N)
psychiatrist – *ahalekeis (m. Ja)
psychological – *ahaleis (adj. A)
psychologist – 1. *ahaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *ahaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
psychology – *ahaleisei (f. N)
publican – motareis (m. Ja)
puff, to~ up = ufblesan (IV red)
pugnacity – þrasabalþei (f. N)
pull – *tauhts (f. I)
pull, to~ down = atdragan (VI abl)
pulling – *tauhts (f. I)
punishment – andabeit (n. A)
purity – hrainei (f. N)
purple – paurpuroþs (part-perf)
purpose – muns (m. I)
push, to~ aside = afskiuban (II)
put, to – lagjan (I weak j), ~ on = gahamon (II weak) + dat
pyramid – *pwramis
quantum-mechanics – *kwantum-maikanika (n. A plural)
queen – *þiudana (f. O)
question – sokns (f. I)
rabbi – rabbei (undeclined)
race – spaurds (f. Cons.) (Sports)
radio – 1. (neol) *luftustibna (f. O) 2. *radio (f. N) (loan)
ragnarökr – *ragine riqis (n. A)
rainbow – *rignabuga (m. N)
ranked – *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
ransom – andabauhts (f. I)
rationality – gafraþjei (f. N)
ray – *strela (f. O)
read, to – 1. (us)siggwan (III) 2. (Greek) anakunnan (III)
really – bi sunjai
reap, to – sneiþan (I abl)
reason – gafraþjei (f. N) (rationality, faculty of reason)
reasonable – 1. andaþahts (adj. A) 2. *andaþahtaba (adv)
rebuke, to – andbeitan (I abl)
receive, to – 1. niman (IV abl), 2. miþniman (iV abl)
receiving – andanumts (f. I)
recommendation – anafilh (n. A)
recompense – andalauni (n. Ja)
recompense, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
reconcile, to~ with = gafriþon (II weak) + dat
reconciliation – gafriþons (f. I)
red – rauþs (adj. A)
redemption – uslauseins (f. I/O)
reed – raus (n. A)
refrigerator – *koljo (f. N) (lit. Cooler)
regard, to – aistan (unspecified verb)
regardskind ~ = (rec.)
liubostons goleinins

region – fera (f. O)
register, to – anameljan (I)
registration – anameleins (f. I)
reign, to – 1. fraujinon (II weak) + dat, ~ as a king = þiudanon (II weak), ~ over = fraujinon/þiudanon ufar + dat.

reject, to – 1. uskiusan (II abl) 2. andspeiwan (I abl)
rejoice, to – sifan (III weak)
related – *samakuns (adj. I/Ja) (as in related in family, blood, group, by tribe)
release, to – fraletan (V)
remain, to – bileiban (I)
remember, to – gamunan (pret-pres) + gen.
remembrance – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
remnant – laiba (f. O)
remission – aflageins (f. I/O)
renew, to – ananiujan (I weak)
repay, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
repent, to – idreigon (II weak), gaïdreigon (II weak)
reproach – idweit (n. A)
reproof – gasahts (f. I)
request – bida (f. O)
researcher – *sokareis (m. Ja)
rest – 1. gahveilains (f. I) 2. rimis (n. A)
restriction – gaaggwei (f. N)
resurrection – 1. usstass (f. I) 2. urrists (f. I) (only once)
reveal, to – andhuljan (I i weak j)
revelation – andhuleins (f. I/O)
revelling – gabaur (m. A)
revenge, to – fraweitan (I abl)
revile, to – laian (V abl red) (they reviled = lailoun)
reward – 1. laun (n. A) 2. mizdo (f. N)
reward, to – usgildan (III abl.)
Reykjavik – *Raukiweika (f. O) (W.E.)
rich – gabigs (adj. A) (rich of = gabigs in + dat)
riches – 1. gabei (f. N) 2. faihu (n. U)
right~ side = taihswa (f. O)
righteousness – garaihteins (f. I/O)
ring – 1. figgragulþ (n. A) 2. *hriggs (m. A) (can be used for form of a ring)
ring fight – brakja (f. Jo) (wrestling)
rip – gataura (m. N) (rip of garment)
rise, to – ushlaupan (II red) (as in a person going to stand)
river – ahwa (f. O)
robot – 1. *skalks (m. A) 2. *mahtiskalks (m. A)
rock – hallus (m. U)
rocket – *rukka (f. O)
rod – wandus (m. U)
roll, to~ away = afwalwjan (I i weak)
Roman – Rumonus (m. U/I) 2. *Rumonisks (adj. A)
Rome – Ruma (f. O)
roof – hrot (n. A)
room – heþjo (f. N), large upper ~ = kelikn (n. A) mikilata (adj. A)
rooster – hana (m. N)
root – waurts (f. I)
rope – *sail (n. A)
Rosicrucian – *rausakrukeis (m. Ja)
round – *hriggaleiks (adj. A)
row – wiko (f. N)
rub, to – bnauan (V red)
rule – garaideins (f. I/O) (as in a rule, a guideline to be followed)
ruler – fraujinonds (m. Nd)
run, to – rinnan (III abl), ~ over = ufargiutan (II abl)
Russia – *Rusaland (n. A)
Russian – 1. *Rus (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Rusisks (adj. A)
rust – nidwa (noun)
rye – *rugs (m. I)
sabbat – sabbatus (m. U), the day after ~ = afarsabbatus (m. U)
sackcloth – sakkus (m. U)
sacred – weihs (adj. A)
sacrifice – 1. hunsl (n. A) 2. sauþs (m. I)
sacrifice, to – hunsljan (I weak i)
sad – gaurs (adj. A)
safely – arniba
safety – þwastiþa (f. O)
saint – weiha (m. N)
salt – salt (n. A)
salt, to – saltan (III red)
salutation – goleins (f. I/O)
salvation – 1. naseins (f. I/O) 2. ganists (f. I)
same – sama (adj. A, weak), at the ~ time = samana
sanctify, to – gaweihan (III weak)
sand – malma (m. N)
sapphire – *saffeirus (m. U)
satanism – *satanismus (m. U)
satanist – *satanistus (m. U)
Saturday – sabbato (undeclinable)
save, to – nasjan (I j weak)
say, to – qiþan (V abl) + dat
scare, to – usagjan (I weak j)
scatter, to – distahjan (I j weak)
school – 1. *skaula (f. O) 2. *skola (f. O)
scorpion – skaurpjo (f. N)
scrip – matibalgs (m. I)
sea – 1. marei (f. N) 2. marisaiws (m. Noun)
seal – 1. sigljo (n. N) 2. *sailhs (m. A) (animal)
seal, to – faursigljan (I i weak)
search – sokeins (f. I/O)
season, to – gasupon (II weak)
secret – 1. runa (f. O) 2. analaugns (adj. A) in ~ = in analaugnein
secretly – analaugniba
security – þwastiþa (f. O)
see, to – saihvan (V abl.)
seed – fraiw (n. A)
seize, to – grepan (I)
self – silba (adj. A, weak)
sender – *sandja (f. O)
seperate, to – afskaidan (I red) (to seperate oneself from), ~ from = afskaidan af + dat.
sepulchre – hlaiw (n. A)
servant – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. þiumagus (m. U) (young boy) 3. magus (m. U) (a young boy) 4. (Servants) þewisa (n. A)
serve, to – 1. skalkinon (II weak) + dat 2. andbahtjan (I i weak) + dat
service – 1. skalkinassus (m. U)
severity – hvassei (f. N)
sex – samakuns (adj. I) (in lustau)
shadow – skadus (m. U)
shake, to – 1gawagjan (I weak) 2. ushrisjan (I weak j) (shake off the dust under your feet = ushrisjaiþ mulda þo undaro fotum izwaraim)
shame – aiwiski (n. Ja)
shameful – agls (adj. A)
sharply – hvassaba (as in severely)
shave, to – 1. kapillon (II) 2. biskaban (VI)
sheath – fodr (n. A)
sheepfold – awistr (n. A)
shekel – sikls (m. Noun)
shelter – *haribairgo (f. N)
shepherd – hairdeis (m. Ja)
shewing – ustaikneins (f. I/O)
shield – skildus (m. U)
shilling – skilliggs (m. A)
shine, to – glitmunjan (I i weak), ~ round = biskeinan (I abl)
shining – *blaiks (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
ship – skip (n. A)
shipwreckto suffer ~ = usfarþon taujan us skipa
shirt – paida (f. O)
shit – 1. maihstus (m. U) 2. smarna (f. O)
shoe – skohs (m. A)
shoes – gaskohi (n. Ja)
short – maurgus (adj. U)
shortage – waninassus (m. U)
shorten, to – gamaurgjan (I)
shoulder – 1. ams (m. A) 2. amsa (m. N) (Only occurs once)
show, to – ataugjan (I i weak) (person/object to whom shown = dat., shown person/object = acc.)
sick – siuks (adj. A)
sickle – gilþa (f. O)
sickness – siukei (f. N)
sign – 1. taikns (f. I) 2. bandwa (f. Wo) 3. bandwo (f. N)
sign, to = ufmeljan (I) + dative
signature – *ufmeleins (f. I/O)
silence – þahains (f. I) , in ~ = in hauniþai (f. O)
similar – galeiks (adj. A)
sin – frawaurhts (f. I)
sincerity – 1. unriurei (f. N) 2. unwammei (f. N) 3. hlutrei (f. N)
sing, to~ for someone = liuþon (II weak) + dat
singer – liuþareis (m. Ja)
singleness – ainfalþei (f. N)
Sion – Sion (noun)
sister – swistar (f. R)
sit, to – sitan (V abl)
skull – hvairnei (f. N)
slanderer – diabula (f. O)
slaughter – slauhts (f. I) (the act of slaughter)
Slav – *Sklabens (m. A) (W.E.)
slave – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. (house-servant) þius (m. U)
slavery – 1. skalkinassus (m. U) 2. þiwadw (noun)
Slavic – *Sklabenisks (adj. A)
slay, to – afslahan (VI)
sleep, to – slepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = saislep), to fall asleep = anaslepan (IV red)
sleight – filudeisei (f. N)
Slovakia – *Slaubakja (f. O)
Slovakian – 1. *Slaubakus (m. U/I) 2. *Slaubakiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Slaubakisks (adj. A)
small – leitils (adj. A)
smaller – minniza (Comp.)
smear, to – gasmeitan (I)
smell – dauns (f. I)
smooth – slaihts (adj. A)
snake – waurms (m. A)
snare – wruggo (f. N)
snot, to – *snutjan
snow – snaiws (noun)
snowman – snaiwsmanna (m. N)
soap – *saipjo (f. N) (W. E.)
sober – gafaurs (adj. I)
sobriety – inahei (f. N)
soft – hnasqus (adj. U)
softly – *hnasquba
soldier – gadrauhts (m. I)
solitary – auþeis (adj. Ja)
son – sunus (m. U)
son-in-law – megs (m. Noun)
song – liuþ (n. A)
soon – sprauto
sorrow – 1. gauriþa (f. O) 2. sair (n. A)
soul – saiwala (f. O)
sound – drunjus (m. U)
soup – *bruþ (n. A)
south – 1. *sunþrs (m. A) 2. *sunþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *sunþana, in the ~ = *sunþar, to the ~ = *sunþar
southwards – *sunþar
sow, to – 1. saian (V abl red) 2. insaïan (V abl red)
Spain – *Heispanja (f. O)
Spanish – 1. *Heispaniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Heispanisks (adj. A)
speak, to~ evil of = anaqiþan (V abl)
spear – *gais (m. A)
spearow – sparwa (m. N)
spectacle – fairweitl (n. A)
spend, to – fraqiman (IV)
sperm – *fraiw (n. A)
spikenard – nardus (m. U)
spirit – ahma (m. N) (Spirit from God or a human, for ghost, see ghost)
spiritual – ahmeins (adj. A)
spit, to – gaspeiwan (I abl)
spittle – speiskuldra (noun)
spleen – *miltja
sponge – swamms (m. A)
spoon – *spenus (m. U) (W.E.)
spring, to – keinan (I abl) (of seed), and the seed shall spring = jah þata fraiw keiniþ
spy – ferja (m. N)
spy, to – biniuhsjan (I weak i)
stablish, to – tulgjan (I i weak)
staff – hrugga (f. O)
stairs – *usstaiga (f. O) (W.E.)
stake – 1. hnuþo (f. N) 2. *staka (m. N)
stallion – *hahists / *hangists (m. N)
stand, to – standan (VI abl) ~ with = miþwisan (unspecified verb)
star – stairno (f. N)
state – reiki (n. Ja)
stature – wahstus (m. U)
stave – walus (m. U)
steal, to – stilan (IV abl)
stedfast – tulgus (adj. U)
stedfastly – *tulguba
steel – stahl(s) (m., n. A) (W.E.)
steep~ place – driuso (f. N)
steward – fauragaggja (m. N)
stewardship – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
sting – gazds (m. A)
stinking – fuls (adj. A)
stir, to – gawagjan (I weak)
Stockholm – *Stukkahulms (m. A)
stone – stains (m. A), corner ~ = waihstastains (m. A)
stony – stainahs (adj. A)
stop, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (to stop something or someone else)
storm – skura (f. O), wind~ = skura windis, fire~ = *skura funins
stork – *udafara (m. N) (W.e.)
story – insahts (f. I)
straightway – sunsaiw
strait – aggwus (adj. U)
stranger – 1. gasts (m. I) 2. aljakuns (adj. I)
street – 1. gatwo (f. N) 2. plapja (f. O)
strength – swinþei (f. N)
stretch, to – ufrakjan (I weak j) (used for hands)
strife – 1. sakjo (f. N) 2. ~ of words = waurdajiuka (f. O)
strike, to – *bautan (VII abl)
striker – slahals (m. Noun)
stripe – slahs (m. I)
strong – swinþs (adj. A)
stronger – swinþoza (Comp.)
student – siponeis (m. Ja)
subconscious – *ufgahugds (f. I)
subculture – *minniza (comp.) kunjahaidus (m. U)
subject – *ufwaurpa (f. O)
subjection – 1. ufhaiseins (f. I/O), 2. ufhnaiweins (f. I/O), to bring into ~ = anaþiwan (III weak)
subverting – uswalteins (f. I/O)
such – swaleiks (adj. A strong)
suck, to – 1. daddjan (I weak i) 2. *sugan (II abl) m
suddenly – anaks
suffer, to – (ga)winnan (III abl)
suffering – winno (f. N)
sufficienty – ganauha (m. N)
sugar – *sakkar (n. A) (W.E.)
suit, to – gatiman (IV)
summer – asans (f. I)
sun – 1. sunno (f. N) 2. (Only used once) sauil (n. A)
Sunday – *sunnins dags (m. A)
superfluous – ufjo
superscription – ufarmeleins (f. I/O)
supper – nahtamats (m. I)
supply – andstald (n. A)
supply, to – andstaldan (III red)
suppose, to – munan (pret-pres)
surely – arniba
surmising – anaminds (f. I)
surpass, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
surround, to – bisatjan (I j weak)
Surtur (myth.) – *Swartus (m. U)
Swede – *Sweja (m. N)
Sweden – *Swejaland (n. A)
sweet – sutis (adj. I) (most forms went over into -ja declension,
sweetly – *sutiba (adv)
swelling – ufswalleins (f. I/O)
sword – 1. hairus (m. U)
sycamine tree – bairabagms (m. A)
synagogue – swnagoge (f. Noun)
Syria – 1. Saurja (f. O) 2. Swria (f. O)
Syrian – (m.) Saur (m. U/I), (f.) Saur
tabernacle – 1. hliþra (f. O) 2. hlija (m. N)
table – 1. biuþs *(m. A) (table to eat) 2. mes (n. A) (table for working) 3. writing ~ = spilda (f. O), ~ of stone = spilda (f. O) staineina (adj. A)
tablet – spilda (f. O)
tag – (online) sokjawaurd (n. A)
tail – *spaurds (m. A)
take, to – 1. niman (IV abl), ~ from = afholon (II weak), ~ out = usniman (IV abl) 2. to take (by hand) = fairgreipan (I abl)
talk, to – rodjan (I i weak)
tapas – *tappos (f. O) (plural)
taste, to – kausjan (I i weak) + acc
tax – 1. gild (n. A) 2. gilstr (n. A)
taxing – gilstrameleins (f. I/O)
tea – *hairbata (f. O) (W. E.)
teach, to – 1. laisjan (I i weak) 2. talzjan (I i weak)
teacher – 1. laisareis (m. Ja) 2. talzjands (m. Nd)
tear – gataura (m. N) (tearing of garment)tear, to – *tiran (IV), ~ apart = *tiran (IV) (loanword in Asturian)
telegraph – (neol) fairramelja (m. N)
telephone – 1. *razdasandja (f. O) 2. *stibnasandja (f. O) (lit. voice-transmitter) 3. *stibnjo (f. Jon) (lit. voicer) 4. *sandja (f. O) (lit. sender)
telescope – *fairrasiuns (f. I)
television – 1. *siunisandja (f. O) (lit. image-transmitter) 2. *manleikasandja (f. O) 3. *siunjo (f. Jon) (lit. sighter) 5. *manleikjo (f. Jon) (lit. Imager)
temperance – gahobains (f. I)
temple – alhs (m. Cons)
temporal – riureis (adj. I/Ja)
tempt, to – 1. fraisan (I red) 2. usfraisan (I red)
temptation – fraistubni (f. Jo)
tender – þlaqus (adj. U)
tent – hleiþra (f. O)
terror – agis (n. A)
test – kustus (m. U)
testimony – 1. weitwodiþa (f. O) 2. weitwodei (f. N)
tetrach – fidurragini (n. Ja)
thank, to – awiliudon (II) + dative
thanks – awiliuþ (n. A)
that – 1. þata 2. (Conj.) þatei, ei (as in: I see that I ….) 3. so ~ = ei … + opt 4. (Dem. Pron.) see: this
the – (Only used in emphasis or comparison and after a noun is used for the first time), see: this
theft – þiubi (n. Ja)
their – 1. (m.) ize 2. (f.) izo
them – im (dat.), ins (m. Acc.), ija (n. / f. Acc.)
themselves – to ~ = du sis misso
theological – *gudleis (adj. A)
theologist – 1. *gudleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *gudleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
theology – *gudleisei (f. N)
theory – *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O)
there – jainar
thereafter – afar þata
thief – hliftus (m. U)
think, to – 1. miton (II weak) 2. hugjan (I) (to suppose)
thirst – þaurstei (f. N)
thirtieth – *þrijatiguda (comp.)
this – 1. sa (m. Nom.), þata (n. Nom. / Acc.), so (f. Nom.), þis (m./n. Gen.), þizos (f. Gen.), þamma (m./n. Dat.), þizai (f. Dat.), þana (m. Acc.), þo (f. Acc.)
thorn – þaurnus (m. U)
thought – mitons (f. I)
thousand – þusundi (f. Jo)
thousandth – * þûsundida (comp.)
thrash – maihstus (m. U)
thread – *þredus (m. U)
threat – hwota (f. O)
threaten, to – gahwotjan (I weak)
threatening – hwota (f. O)
three – þreis (adj. A strong)
Thursday – *þunaris dags (m. A)
Tiberian – Tibairiadeis (m. U/I)
time – 1. mel (n. A) (moment) 2. sinþ (n. A) (always with dative, e.g. two times = twaim sinþam), at the same ~ = samana
title – ufarmeli (n. Ja)
tittle – striks (m. I)
Tiw – *Teiws (m. A)
to – du + dative
today – himma daga
toe – *tains (m. A)
together – samana
toilet – *gaggastaþs (m. I)
token – see sign
Tokyo – (neol.) Tokio (f. N)
tolerable – sutis (adj. I)
tomorrow – gistradagis
tongue – tuggo (f. N)
too – 1. jah (synonym of also) 2. ufar- (too much = ufarfilu)
tooth – tunþus (m. U)
touch – *atsnarpeins (f. I/O)
touch, to – 1. attekan (V red abl) (he/she touched = attaitok) 2. atsnarpjan (I i weak) 2. rahton (II weak) (symbolically)
towel – *þwahilo (f. N) (W. E.)
tower – kelikn (n. A)
tradition – anafilh (n. A)
traffic – *fara (f. O)
train – *tauhts (f. I)
transfiguration – *inmaideins (f. I/O)
transfigure, to – inmaidjan (I i weak)
translate, to – gaskeirjan (I)
translator – gaskeirja (m. N)
translation – gaskeireins (f. I/O)
transmitter – *sandja (f. O)
travel, to – wraton (II weak)
tread, to – trudan (IV abl)
treasure – huzd (n. A)
treat, to~ shamefully = ganaitjan (I weak)
trespass – missadeþs (f. I)
tribulation – agliþa (f. O)
trip – wratodus (m. U)
triumphant – hroþeigs (adj. A)
troll – *trallu (n. U) (Reconstructed by Grimm)
trouble – aglo (f. N)
trouble, to – usþriutan (II abl) + dat
true – sunjeins (adj. A)
trust, to – gatrauan (III weak)
truth – sunja (f. O)
Tuesday – *Teiwis dags (m. A)
tumult – 1. auhjodus (m. U) 2. drobna (m. N)
turkey (bird) – *pawahana (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
turn, to~ away = afwandjan (I weak i)
turnip – 1. *rap (n. A) 2. *rapa (f. O) 3. *naps (m. A)
turtle – *taistudo (f. N) (W.E.)
turtledove – hraiwadubo (f. N)
tutor – ragineis (m. Ja)
tweet – *tweit (n. A)
twelve – twalif (gen. = twalibe, dat. = twalibim)
twentieth – *twatiguda (comp.)
two – twai (adj. A strong)
ty – tigjus (m. U) (suffix for decades 20-60)
Tyr – *teiws (m. A)
unbelief – ungalaubeins (f. I/O)
unborn – unbaurans (part-perf)
uncertain – unwiss (adj)
uncircumcision – faurafilli (n. Ja) (it. For-skin)
uncleanness – 1. unhrainiþa (f. O) 2. unhrainei (f. N)
under – uf + dat
underground – *ufgrundus (m. U)
underpants – *ufbroks (f. Cons.)
understanding – 1. frodei (f. N) 2. fullaweis (adj. A)
underworld – *uffairhvus (m. U)
undisputed – unandsakans (part-perf)
undress, to – andwasjan (I j weak)
ungodliness – afgudei (f. N)
unisex – gamains (adj. A)
United States – *Amairika (f. O)
unity – ainamundiþa (f. O)
university – 1. *mikila skaula (f. O) 2. *mikila skola (f. O)
unjust – inwindiþos (f. O) (the adjective unjust is formed with the genitive singular of inwindiþa, meaning unrighteousness)
unlearned – untals (adj. A)
unleavened – unbeistjoþs (past-perf)
unless – sware
unmarried – 1. *unqeniþs (part. perf.) (only used for men) 2. unliugaiþs (past-perf)
unmoveable – ungawagiþs (part-perf)
unprepared – unmanwus (adj. U)
unrighteousness – inwindiþa (f. O)
unsearchable – unfairlaistiþs (past-perf)
unspeakable – unqeþs (adj. I/Ja)
unthankful – launawargs (adj. A)
unwashen – unþwahans (past-perf)
uproar – drobna (m. N)
urinate, to – *meigan (I)
urine – *hland (n. A)
use, to – brukjan (I weak i) + gen
useful – bruks (adj. I)
username – (neol) *atgagganamo (n. N), see name for exceptions in the declension
vail – hulistr (n. A)
valley – dals (m. Noun)
valkyrie – *walakusjo (f. N)
value – wairþ (n. A)
value, to – wairþon (II weak)
Vandal – *wandals (m. A)
vanity – uswissi (n. Ja)
veal – *kalbamimz (noun)
veil – faurhah (n. A)
vengeance – fraweit (n. A), ~ is mine = mis fraweit leitaidau
very – 1. filu 2. abraba (stronger than filu)
vessel – kas (n. A)
victorious – hroþeigs (adj. A)
victory – sigis (n. A)
video – *film (n. A)
viking – *weikiggs (m. A)
vine – weinatriu (n. Wa)
vineyard – weinatriu (n. Wa)
virgin magaþs (f. I)
virginity – magaþei (f. N)
virtue – godei (f. N)
visible – anasiuns (adj. I)
Visigoth – *Wistraguta (m. N)
Visigothic – *Wistragutisks (adj. A)
visit, to – gaweison (II weak) + gen.
visitation – niuhseins (f. I/O)
vivid – *gaheis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
voice – stibna (f. O)
wade, to – *wadan (reconstructed by J.G. Quak)
wag, to – wiþon (II weak)
wagon – 1. *karrahago (f. N) (latinized Gothic word) 2. *karrs (m. A)
wait, to – beidan (I abl) + gen. (Waiting for the kingdom of God = beidands þiudangardjos gudis; thing waited for is in the genitive)
Wales – *Walhaland (n. A)
walhalla – *walahalla (f. O)
walk, to – hwarbon (II weak)
wall – baurgswaddjus (f. U) (literally: city-wall, for another kind of wall use waddjus (f. U) seperately)
want, to – wiljan (unspecifief verb) (present tense conjugated like the optative present form)
war – *badus (m. U), second world ~ = anþar (adj. A strong) fairhvubadus (m. U), to go to ~ = driugan (II weak)
warfare – drauhtinassus (m. U), to go on ~ = drauhtinon (II weak)
warmth – *warmei (f. N)
wary – *war (adj. A)
waste – fraqisteins (f. I/O)
watching – wokains (f. I)
water – wato (n. N), pl. Nom. = watna, pl. Gen. = *watne, pl. Dat. = watnam, pl. Acc. = watna, white- ~ / rapids = stainaha watna
wave – wegs (m. A)
way – 1. wigs (n. A) (way on a land), rough ~ = usdrusts (f. I) 2. haidus (m. U) (way to do something)
weak – unmahteigs (adj. A)
weapon – 1. *wepna (n. A) (plural) 2. *sarwa (m. N)
weather – *wiþr (n. A)
Wednesday – *wodanisdags (m. A)
week – 1. sabbato (f. N) 2. wiko (f. N) (attested only once)
weekend – *sabbatons andeis (m. Ja)
weep, to – gretan (V abl red) (he/she wept = gaigrot)
weeping – grets (m. A)
weight – kaurei (f. N)
weighty – kaurus (adj. U)
well – waila
Welsh – 1. *walhiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Walhisks (adj. A)
Welshman – *walhs (m. A)
werewolf – *wairawulfs (m. A)
west – 1. *wistrs (m. A) 2. wistra- (adj.), from the ~ = *wistana, in the ~ = *wistar, to the ~ = *wistar
westwards – *wistar
wet – *nats (adj. A)
what – 1. (int) hva 2. (relative pronoun) see which
wheat – hvaiteis (m. Ja)
wheel – 1. *raþ (n. A) (dat. Sing. raþa) 2. *hwi(h)l (n. A)
when – 1. (int.) hvan 2. þan (can never be used in initial position) 3. þanuh
where – 1. (int.) hvar 2. þarei (in phrases which aren’t questions, in the sense of: the place where = staþs, þarei)
whether – ei
while – 1. hveila (f. O) 2. miþþanei (With contrast, used as in: I was here, while he was there. Ik was her, miþþanei is was jainar.)
whip – *laittug
white – hveits (adj. A)
white, to – hveitjan (I i weak)
who – 1. (int.) (m. Nom.) Hvas, (f. Nom.) Hvo 2. (Who as relative pronoun, the person who ..) (m. Nom.) Saei, (n. Nom.) þatei, (f. Nom.) soei/sei (sei is used more frequently then soei)
wholly – allandjo (indecl)
whore – kalkjo (f. N)
why – 1. (interr) duhve 2. (interr) hva þatei 3. (confirmative), that’s why = in þis, in þizei
wicked – unsibjis (adj. Ja)
wickedness – unselei (f. N)
wide – braiþs (adj.)
widow – widuwo (f. N)
width – braidei (f. N)
wilderness – auþida (f. O)
wildly – wilþiba
will – wilja (m. N)
willingly – us lustum
wind – winds (m. A)
window – augadauro (n. N)
wine – wein (n. A), berry ~ = basjawein (n. A), given to ~ = weinnas
wineservant – *weinaskalks (m. A)
wing – *fiþrahama (m. N)
winter – wintrus (m. U)
wipe, to~ out = afswairban (III)
wisdom – 1. handugei (f. N) 2. frodei (f. N)
wise – 1. handugs (adj. A) 2. froþs (adj. A)
wisely – frodaba
witch – *haljaruna (f. O)
witchcraft – lubjaleisei (f. N)
with – miþ + dat
withdraw, to – ufsliupan (II abl)
without – 1. inuh + acc 2. utana + gen (from the outside)
withstand, to – andstandan (VI)
witness – 1. weitwoþs (m. Root)
wizard – *lubjaleis (m. A)
woad – *wai(z)da (f. O)
Wodan – *Wodans (m. A)
woe – O woe = wai
wolf – wulfs (m. A)
woman – qino (f. N)
womb – 1. qiþus (m. U) 2. kilþei (f. N) (occurs only once)
wood – triu (n. Wa)
wooden – *triweins (adj. A)
woodpeaker – *paih(t)s (m. A)
woods – *widus (m. U)
word – waurd (n. A)
work – waurstw (n. A)
worker – gawaurstwa (m. N)
working – waurstwei (f. N) (not labour by men but doing something)
world – 1. fairhvus (m. U) 2. midjungards (m. I) (the world where people live)
worm – maþa (m. N)
wormhole – *waurmaþairko (f. N)
worse – 1. wairsiza (comp.) 2. wairs
worship, to – blotan (V red)
worshipper – 1. *blostreis (m. Ja), ~ of God = gudblostreis (m. Ja) 2. *blostreisa (f. O)
worshipping – 1. blotinassus (m. U) 2. skalkinassus (m. U)
wrap, to – biwindan (III abl)
wrath – 1. þwairhei (f. N) 2. moþs (m. A)
write, to – meljan (I) + dat
writer – 1. bokareis (m. Ja) 2. *bokari (f. Jo)
yellow – 1. *gilws (adj. Wa) 2. *gulws (adj. Wa)
Yiddish – 1. *Idiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo) 2. *Jidiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo)
yoke – juk (n. A)
younger – minniza (Comp.), only in: The elder serves the ~ = sa maiza skalkinoþ þamma minizin
your – 1. (sing) (both informal and formal) þeins (posessive pronoun, always declined strongly) 2. (dual) iggqar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly) 3. (plural) izwar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly)
youth – junda (f. O) (someones youth)
yule – *jiul (n. A)
zeal – aljan (n. A)
zeitgeist – *aldiwists (f. I)
zionism – *Sionismus (m. U)
zionist – *Sionistus (m. U)



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