English-Gothic dictionary

English to Gothic dictionary

This list contains attested words and words reconstructed by linguists. This dictionary is especially written for writing in Gothic, therefore stems are included.​

Abbreviations

acc. = accusative
adv. = adverb
dat. = dative
int. = interrogative (questions)
voc. = vocative
W.E. = reconstructed by Wolfram Euler
neol. = neologism (these are words which didn’t exist when the Goths lived.)
rec. = reconstruction
Greek = direct translation of original Greek, highly unlikely genuine Gothic

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Initial position means the first place in a phrase, in “The man is here.”, ‘the’ is in the initial position.

Just like in normal dictionaries, ~ means a repetition of the main word. So if you look up Gothic and find “2. *~ language”, the ~ means Gothic.

Here are some tips when using Gothic:

All -us nouns are masculine, except for faihu (n.) (Property) and reconstructed *alu (n.) (Beer) and handus (f.) (Hand), kinnus (f.) (Cheek), baurgswaddjus (f.) (Wall) and asiluqairnus (f.) (Millstone).

The declensions of the nouns are:

In order of: nom. sing, gen. sing, dat. sing, acc. sing, voc. sing, nom. plur., gen. plur., dat. plur., acc. plur., voc. plur.

m. A = -s, -is, -a, -, -, -os, -e, -am, -ans, -os
n. A = -, -is, -a, -, -, -a, -e, -am, -a, -a
f. O = -a, -os, -ai, -a, -os, -o, -om, -os, -os

When saying for instance “It is beautiful”, you use the n. Declension (Skaun ist).

When more translations are available, the most prevalent is given first.

a – (English article, is untranslated)
abbreviation – *maurgeins (f. I/O)
abolish, to – blauþjan (I weak i)
abolishment – *blauþeins (f. I/O)
abominable – andasets (adj. I)
about – bi + acc (as in: about him)
absent – afhaimeis (adj. Ja) (far from home)
abundance – 1. ufarassus (m. U) 2. ufarfullei (f. N) 3. digrei (f. N)
abuse – *anamahts (f. I)
abuse, to – anamahtjan (I)
abuser – *anamahtjands (m. Cons.)
abyss – afgrundiþa (f. O)
acceptation – andanumts (f. I)
accepted – andanems (adj. I)
access – atgagg (n. A)
according – ~ to = afar + dative
accusation – 1. fairina (f. O) 2. wrohs (f. I)
accusative – *akkusateibus (m. U)
accustomed – biuhts (adj. A)
adoption – frastisibja (f. Jo)
adult – uswahsans (pret-pres)
adulterer – hors (m. A)
adulteress – *horo (f. N)
adultery – horinassus (m. U)
advance – framgahts (f. I)
advantage – bota (f. O)
adversary – 1. andastaua (m. N) (in court) 2. andastaþjis (m. Ja)
advertisement – *hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advertising – *hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advice – ragin (n. A)
affection – 1. winna (f. O) 2. winno (f. N)
affliction – wunns (f. I)
afraid – faurhts (adj. A)
after – afar + dat/acc (in locative it’s the dative, temporal form uses either dative or accusative)
again – aftra
against – 1. wiþra + acc 2. over~ = wiþrawairþs (adj. A)
aged – framaldrs (adj. A) (as in old)
agreement – samaqiss (f. I)
aim – mundrei (f. N)
alienate, to – framaþjan (I weak i)
alm – armaio (f. N)
almighty – allwaldands (m. Nd)
all – alls (adj. A strong), not at ~ = ni allis
allegoric – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
allegorical – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
along – and + acc
alphabet – 1. *bokatewa (f. O) 2. *azgabairka (f. O) (lit. Ash-birch, the first two letters of the native alphabet, but bokatewa should be used for other alphabets)
alphabetical – *bokateweis (adj. Ja)
always – sinteino
already – ju
altar – hunslastaþs (m. I)
altruism – *broþrulubo (f. N)
altruist – 1. *broþrulubja (m. N) 2. *broþrulubjo (f. N)
amaze, to be – afslauþnan (IV)
amazement – usfilmei (f. N), ~n dissitan = to be amazed
amber – 1. *glas (n. A) 2. *gles (n. A)
amber route – 1. *glasawigs (m. A) 2. *glesawigs (m. A)
amen – amen
American – 1. *Amairikisks (adj. A) 2. *Amairikus (m. U/I) (citizen)
anarchism – *anarxismus (m. U)
anarchist – *anarxistus (m. U)
anarchistic – *anarxists (adj. A)
answer – andahafts (f. I)
and – 1. jah 2. -uh (Can only be used after verbs and names)
angel – aggilus (m. U/I)
anger – moþs (m. A)
angle – *skina (f. O)
angry – ~ on = modags (adj. A) + dat, to be ~ on = hatizon (II weak) + dat
anguish – aggwiþa (f. O)
anoint, to – gasmeitan (abl I)
anonymous – *unnamniþs (past. part. as adj.)
answer – 1. andahafts (f. I) 2. andawaurdi (n. Ja)
answer, to – 1. andhafjan (VI) + dat
ant – *emaitja (f. O)
Antiochia – Antiaukia (f. Noun, declined as O)
anthropological – *mannaleis (adj. A)
anthropologist – 1. *mannaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *mannaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
anthropology – *mannaleisei (f. N)
any – 1. ~ man = mannahun (first part declined as manna)
apostle – apaustaulus (m. U/I)
apostleship – apaustaulei (f. I)
appearing – gabairhteins (f. I/O)
appetizer – *tappa (f. O)
approach, to – anaqiman (IV)
Arabia – Arabia (f. Undeclined)
archangel – arkaggilus (m. U/I)
arkenstone – *airknastains (m. A)
armour – sarwa (n. Wa)
army – harjis (m. Ja)
aroma – *aroma (pl. *aromata) (n. A) (W.E.)
arranged – garaiþs (adj. A)
arrow – arhvazna (f. O)
art – skaun (r. Ja) waurstw (n. A), skaun waurstw
artificial – 1. *handuwaurhts (past perf.) 2. *mannawaurhts (past perf.)
artemisia – *artaimisja (f. O)
ash – azgo (f. N)
ashamed – to be ~ = gaaiwiskon (II weak)
Asia – Asia (f. O)
ask, to – fraihnan (V abl)
asleep – to fall ~ = anaslepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = anasaizlep)
aspersion – ufarranneins (f. I/O)
ass – assilus (m. U) (synonyme of donkey)
assumption – anaminds (f. I)
astronomer – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astronomical – *stairnaleis (adj. A)
astronomically – *stairnaleisaba
astronomy – *stairnaleisei (f. N)
attack, to – gasokjan miþ *wepnam (m. A)
Athens – Aþeineis (m. U/I) (lit. Athenians, but the plural form of a people was used to refer to a place too.)
attract, to – atþinsan (III)
auger – *nabagais (m. A)
austere – hardus (adj. U)
Austria – *australand (n. A)
author – bokareis (m. Ja)
await, to – beidan (I)
awake, to – gawaknan (IV weak)
axe – aqizi (f. Jo)
Babylonia – *Babwlaun
backwards – afta
bag – balgs (m. I)
Balder (myth.) – *baldrs (m. A)
ball – *balla (m. N)
balsam – balsan (n. A)
ban, to – uswairpan (III abl)
banish, to – uswairpan (III abl)
bank – skattjans (m. N) (plural of skattja (moneychanger) means a bank)
banker – 1. *skattja (m. N) 2. *skattjo (f. N)
banquet – dauhts (f. I)
baptist – daupjands (m. Nd)
bar – ans (m. A)
barbarian – barbarus (m. U/I)
barely – halisaiw
barley – barizeins (adj. A), ~ loaf = barizeins hlaifs (m. A)
barn – bansts (m. I)
barrel – *barils (m. A)
barren – stairo (f. N)
basket – tainjo (f. N)
battle – waihjo (f. N)
beam – ans (m. A)
bean – *bauna (f. O)
bear, to – bairan (IV)
beat, to – 1. stautan (II red) 2. bliggwan (III abl) 3. *biutan (II)
beautiful – skauns (adj. I/Ja)
beautifully – *skauniba
because – 1. duþe 2. unte (Only in initial position.) 3. ~ of = in + gen
bed – ligrs (m. A)
bedroom – (neol) badiheþjo (f. N) / (neol) slepaheþjo (f. N)
bee – *biwa (f. Wo)
beer – *alu (n. U), barley ~ = barizalu (n. U), black ~ = swartalu (n. U), wheat ~ = hvaitjalu (n. U), white ~ = hveitalu (n. U)
before – 1. faurþis 2. faurþizei + subjunctive (only used after a comma)
beg, to – bidjan (V)
beggar – bidagwa (m. N)
beginning – anastodeins (f. I)
behave, to – ~ badly = aiwiskon (II weak)
behaviour – usmet (n. A)
behind – afta
Belarus – *Hweitarusaland (n. A)
Belarussian – 1. *Hweitarus (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Hweitarusisks (adj. A)
Belgian – 1. *Bailgus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Bailgisks (adj. A)
Belgium – *Bailgaland (n. A)
Belgrade – *Hveitabaurgs (f. Cons)
belief – galaubeins (f. I/O)
believe, to – galaubjan (I weak i) + dat, ~ in = galaubjan du + dat
bench – *banks (m. I)
bend, to – *lutan (II strong) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
benefit – wailadeþs (f. I) (good deed)
Beroia – Bairauja (f. Noun, declined as O)
berry – basi (n. Ja)
Bethlehem – Beþlaihaim (nom. Beþlaihaim gen. Beþlaihaimis)
betray, to – fralewjan (I weak)
better – 1. batiza (comp.) 2. usiza (comp.) (Preferable)
between – miþ + dat, ~ the two borders = miþ tweihnaim markom
bewail, to – flokan (V red)
bicycle – 1. *raþjo (f. Jo) (lit. Wheeler) 2. *bainjo (f. Jo) (lit. Legger) 3. *fotjo (f. Jo) (lit. Footer) 4. *eisarnamarhs (m. A) (lit. Iron-horse)
big – mikils (adj. A)
binary – 1. *tweihnai (adj. A) (plural, meaning both) (W.E.) 2. *twafalþs (adj. A) (W.E.)
biological – *libainileis (adj. A)
biologist – 1. *libainileis (m. A) (declined like adjective) 2. *libainileisa (f. O) (declined like adjective)
biology – *libainileisei (f. N)
birch – *bairka (f. O)
bird – fugls (m. A)
birth – gabaurþs (f. I)
bisexual – 1. *alalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 2. *twalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 3. *alalustjo (f. N) (bisexual woman) 4. *twalustjo (bisexual woman)
bishop – aipiskaupus (m. U), office of a ~ = aipiskaupei
bitch – 1. *hundi (f. Jo) 2. *hundjo (f. N) 3. *bikjo (f. On) 4. *tauho (f. N)
bitcoin – (neol) bitskatts (m. A)
bite, to – beitan (I abl)
bitter – baitrs (adj. A)
bitterness – baitrei (f. N)
black – swarts (adj. A)
blame, to – 1. anawammjan (I i weak) 2. andbeitan (I abl) 3. fairinon (II weak)
blameless – ungafairinoþs (past-perf)
blank – *bas (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
blasphemy – 1. wajamerei (f. N) 2. wajamereins (f. I/O)
blessed – audags (adj. A)
blessedness – audagei (f. N)
blessing – þiuþeins (f. I/O)
blue – *blaus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
blind – blinds (adj. A)
block, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (as in to block the way)
blog – *blaug (n. A)
boar – *bais (m. A)
boast, to – hwopan (V red)
boaster – bihaitja (m. N)
boasting – hvoftuli (f. Jo)
bodily – leikeins (adj. A)
body – leik (n. A)
bold, to be – anananþjan (I i weak)
boldness – balþei (f. N)
bordel – 1. kalkjarazn (n. A) 2. *kalkjahus (n. A)
border – marka (f. O)
border, to – gamarkon (II weak)
bough *bogus (m. U) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
boundary – marka (f. O)
born, to be – wairþan (III)
borrow, to – leihvan (I abl)
bosom – barms (m. I)
bow – *buga (m. N)
bow, to – biugan (II abl)
box – arka (f. O)
branch – 1. asts (m. A) 2. tains (m. A)
bread – hlaifs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms), light ~ = hwaitahlaifs (m. A), brown ~ = swartahlaifs (m. A), wheat ~ = hwaitjahlaifs (m. A)
break, to – dishniupan (II abl)- he brake the bands = dishniupands þos bandjos
breast – brusts (f. Cons.)
breastplate – brunjo (f. N)
breath – *aþana (m. N)
bridegroom – bruþfaþs (m. I)
bridge – 1. *bruddi (f. Ja) 2. *bruwja (f. Ja)
bring, to – attiuhan (II abl) (to bring a person)
broad – rums (adj.)
brook – rinno (f. N)
brother – broþar (m. R), ~s = broþrahans (m. N)
brotherly love – broþrulubo (f. N)
brown – *bruns (adj. A) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
bruise, to – gamalwjan (I weak)
build, to – timrjan (I j weak)
building – gatimrjo (f. N)
Bulgaria – *Bulgarja (f. O)
Bulgarian – 1. *Bulgarus (m. U/I) 2. *Bulgariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Bulgarisks (adj. A)
burden – kauriþa (f. O)
burial – gafilh (n. A), day of burying = dags (m. A) gafilhis
bury, to – ganawistron (II weak) (perf.)
bus – 1. *aumnibus (m. A/m. U) 2. *wigaskip (n. A)
bush – bramble ~ = aihvatundi (f. Jo)
bushel – mela (m. N)
business – to do ~ = kaupon (II weak)
butcher – skilja (m. N)
butter – 1. *ankwa (m. N) 2. *smairw (n. A) 3. *butwr (n. A) 4. *butwraun (loan from Greek)
button – *haubidilo (n. N) (lit. little head)
buy, to – bugjan (I weak j)
byte – *bajt (n. A)
cacao – *kakaw (n. A)
cake – *koka (f. O)
calf – 1. stiur (m. A) 2. kalbo (f. N) (female calf which is under one years old and which hasn’t got calves yet)
call, to – atlaþon (II weak)
calm – wis (n. A) (of water)
camel – ulbandus (m. U)
can, to – magan (pret-pres)
cancer – gund (n. A)
candlestick – lukarnastaþa (m. N)
capital city – *haubidabaurgs (f. Cons)
captivity – hunþs (m. A)
car – *karrs (m. A)
carbon – *kul (n. A)
card – *karta (f. O)
cardboard – *kartabaurd (n. A)
care – kara (f. O), he ~s about .. = .. (gen) imma kara ist, to take ~ of = gakaron (II weak) (perf.), to ~ for = karon (II weak)
carefully – us gaþagkja
carp – *karpa (f. O)
carpenter – timrja (m. N)
carry, to – bairan (IV)
cast, to – ~ down = afdrausjan (I i weak), ~ away = afskiuban (II abl) + dative, ~ off = afskiuban (II abl) + dat
casualness – latei (f. N)
catalogue – *katalaugus (m. U)
catamite – *magulus (m. U)
cathedral – *aipiskaupaus aikklesjo (f. N) 2. *kaþaidral (n. A)
cauldron – *hwair
cautious – *war (adj. A)
cease, to – sweiban (i abl)
celestial body – tuggl (n. A)
cell – 1. *kailla (f. N) 2. heþjo (f. N)
Celt – *Kailts (m. A) (W.E.)
Celtic – *Kailtisks (adj. A)
centurion – hundafaþs (m. I)
century – *jerahund (m. A)
certain – sums (adj. A)
chaff – ahana (f. O)
chair – sitls (m. A)
chamber – heþjo (f. N)
change – inmaideins (f. I/O)
change, to – 1. inmaidjan (I i weak) 2. ~ into = ingaleikon (II weak)
cheek – kinnus (f. U)
cheerfulness – hlasei (f. N)
cheese – 1. *justs (m. A) 2. *kaseis (m. Ja)
chicken – hana (m. N)
child – barn (n. A)
childhood – barniski (n. Ja)
childish – barnisks (adj. A)
chocolate – *kakawamats (m. A)
Christ – Xristus (m. U)
christmas – weiha (adj. A) nahts (f. Cons.), weiha nahts
chromosome – *xromasoma (n. A) (nom. Pl. *xromasomata) (W.E.)
chupacabra – 1. *gaitisugja (m. N) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson) 2. *gaitisugjo (f. N) (female chupacabra)
church – aikklesjo (f. N)
cigarette – *sigaraita (f. O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
cinder – azgo (f. N)
cinema – 1. *filmarazn (n. A) 2. *filmahus (n. A)
circle – *hriggs (m. A)
circumcise, to – bimaitan (I red)
circumcision – bimaita (f. O)
citizen – baurgja (m. N)
citizenship – kawtsjo (f. N)
clamour – hrops (m. A)
clay – þaho (f. N)
cleansing – gahraineins (f. I/O)
cloak – inilo (f. N)
cloke – hakuls (m. Noun)
close – nehva (near) + dat
closer – nehvis
closet – heþjo (f. N)
clothe, to – gawasjan sik (I weak)
cloud – milhma (m. N)
coal – hauri (n. Ja), glowing ~ = *brasa
coat – paida (f. O)
cock – hana (m. N) (male hen)
coffee – *kahwa (f. O) (W. E.)
coin – skatts (m. A)
cold – kalþs (adj. A)
collectively – alakjo
colony – niujaland (n. A) (W.E.)
colt – fula (m. N)
comb – *kambs (m. A)
comb, to – *kambjan (ei)
come, to – qiman (IV abl)
coming – qums (m. I)
comfort – gaþrafstei (f. I/O)
comfort, to – 1. anaþrafstjan (I weak) 2. gaþlaihan (I red)
comforter – parakletus (m. U) (Greek)
comfortless – widuwairna (m. N)
command, to – anabiudan (II abl)
commandmend – anabusns (f. I)
comment – *waurd (n. A)
commonwealth – usmet (n. A)
communication – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
communism – 1. *gamainalaiseins (f. I/O) 2. *gamaineins laiseins (f. I/O) 3. *kaumunismus (m. U)
communist – 1. *kaumunistus (m. U) 2. *gamainalaiseinja (m. N) 3. *gamainalaiseinjo (f. N)
communistic – *kaumunists (adj. A)
companion – gahlaiba (m. N)
compare, to – galeikon (II weak) + dat (dative is that to which is compared)
compell, to – baidjan (I weak i) + acc
concord – samaqiss (f. I)
concupiscence – gairuni (n. Ja)
condemnation – wargiþa (f. O)
confirm, to – gatulgjan (I weak i)
confirmation – *gatulgeins (f. I/O)
connectedly – gahahjo
conscience – 1. miþwissei (f. N) 2. þuhtus (m. U) 3. gahugds (f. I)
consent – gaqiss (adj. A)
consolation – þrafsteins (f. I/O)
conspiracy – birunains (f. I) ~ theory = *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O) birunainais
conspirator – *birunands (m. Cons.)
conspire, to – birunan (III)
consume, to – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
container~ for transport = *barils (m. A)
contrary – andaneiþs (adj. A)
convenient – gatils (adj. A)
conveniently – gatilaba
convent – *maunasteri (n. Ja) (W.E.)
convention – gaqumþs (f. I)
conversation – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
conversion – gawandeins (f. I/O)
cool – *kolus (adj. U)
Copenhagen – *Kaupahabana (f. O)
coppersmith – aizasmiþa (m. N)
corner – waihsta (m. N), ~ stone = waihstastains (m. A)
correction – garaihteins (f. I/O)
corrupt, to – riurjan (I weak i)
corruption – riurei (f. N) (as in eternal destruction)
costly – galaufs (adj. A), very ~ = filugalaufs (adj. A)
council – gafaurds (f. I), to take ~ = runa (f. O) gataujan (I)
counsel – to give ~ = garaginon (II weak) (perf.)
counsellor – ragineis (m. Ja)
country – land (n. A)
countryman – inkunja (m. N)
cousin – 1. gadilligs (m. Noun) (male) 2. niþjo (f. N) (female) 3. ganiþjis (m. Ja)
coutiousness – gaþagki (n. Ja)
cover, to – huljan (I weak j)
cow – *kos (f. Cons)
craftiness – warei (f. N)
crane – *kranil
cream – 1. *raums (m. A) 2. *riuma (m. N)
creation – gaskafts (f. I)
creditor – dulgahaitja (m. N)
creep, to – sliupan (II abl) (as in creep into the house)
crime – missadeþs (f. I)
criminological – *missadedileis (adj. A)
criminologist – 1. *missadedileis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *missadedileisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
criminology – *missadedileisei (f. N)
crooked – wraiqs (adj. A)
cross – 1. *kruks (m./n. A) 2. galga (m. N) (christian cross)
crown – 1. waips (m. Noun) 2. wipja (f. Jo)
crown, to – weipan (I abl)
crucify, to – 1. ushramjan (I j) 2. hramjan (I weak j)
crumbs – drauhnos (f. O plur)
cry – hrops (m. A)
crystal – *eisastains (m. A)
cube – 1. *kubus (m. U) 2. *kwbus (m. U)
cubit – aleina (f. O)
cuckoo bird – *gauks (m. A)
cultural – *biuhtje (lit. Of the customs)
culture – 1. *kunjahaidus (m. U) (lit. tribe-manner) 2. *biuhtja (n. Ja) (lit. customs)
cup – stikls (m. A), ~ of water = stikls (m. A) watin
custom – 1. biuhti (n. Ja), according to the ~ = bi biuhtja 2. biuhts (adj. A)
cut, to – maitan (I red), ~ off = usmaitan (I red)
cymbal – klismo (f. N)
Czech – 1. *Tsjaiks (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Tsjaikisks (adj. A)
Czech republic – *Tsjaikaland (n. A)
Dalmatia – Dalmatia (f. Declined as O)
Damascian – Damasks (adj. A)
Damascus – Damasko (f. N)
daily – 1. sinteino (adv) 2. sinteins (adj. A) 3. seiteins (adj. A)
dance – laiks (m. A)
dance, to – plinsjan (I i weak)
Dane – *Dans (m. I)
Danish – 1. *Daniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Danisks (adj. A)
danger – 1. bireikei (f. N) (the state of being in danger) 2. sleiþei (f. N) (potential external harm or destruction)
dangerous – sleiþs (adj. I/Ja) (declined as -ja stem mostly)
Danube – *Donaweis (m. Ja)
dare, to – anananþjan (I weak)
dark – *riqizeins (adj. A)
darkness – riqis (n. A)
dart – arhvazna (f. O)
darts – arhvaznos (f. O)
data – *data (n. A plural), big ~ = mikila (adj. A plural) *data (n. A plural)
database – *datahuzd (n. A)
dative – *dateibus (m. U)
daughter – dauhtar (f. R)
day – dags (m. A), daily = daga hvammeh, ~ by ~ = daga jah daga, every ~ = dags hindar daga (as a continuation of days in which something happens), the eighth ~ = ahtaudogs (adj. A), the next ~ = afardags (m. A), to~ = himma daga,
deacon – diakaunus (m. U)
deafto become ~ = afdaubnan (IV weak)
deafness – 1. daubiþa (f. O) 2. daubei (f. N)
death – dauþus (m. U), appointed to ~ = dauþubleis (adj. Ja)
debt – skuld (n. A)
debtor – 1. skula (m. N) 2. faihuskula (m. N) (Only occurs once)
deceit – liutei (f. N)
deceitfullness – afmarzeins (f. I/O)
deceive, to – 1. afairzjan (I weak), he ~s himself = sis silbin fraþjamarzeins ist 2. usluton (II weak)
decree – gagrefts (f. I)
deep – diups (adj. A)
deepness – diupei (f. N)
deliver, to – undredan (V abl red)
demon – 1. unhulþo (f. N)
demonological – *unhulþaleis (adj. A)
demonologist – 1. *unhulþaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *unhulþaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
demonology – *unhulþaleisei (f. N)
Denmark – Danimarka (f. O)
dentist – *tunþulekeis (m. Ja)
deny, to – afaikan (VII)
depart, to – 1. afleiþan (abl. I) 2. aftiuhan (II abl)
departure – diswiss (f. I)
descend, to – gasteigan (I abl)
desert – 1. auþida (f. O) 2. auþeis (adj. Ja)
desire – 1. lustus (m. U) 2. gairnei (f. N)
desire, to – luston (II weak) + gen (as in feeling lust for another person)
desirous – gairns (adj.)
desolate – ainakls (adj. A)
despise, to – frakunnan (pret-pres)
destruction – fralusts (f. I)
devil – 1. diabaulus (m. U) (the devil) 2. unhulþo (f. N) (a devil)
dictionary – (neol) *waurdabokos (f. O)
die, to – 1. gaswiltan (III abl)
difference – 1. gaskaideins (f. I/O) 2. anþarleikei (f. N) (only in skeireins)
different – missaleiks (adj. A)
difficult – 1. aglus (adj. U) 2. agluba (adv)
diligence – usdaudei (f. N)
diminishing – wanains (f. I)
dinner – undaurnimats (m. I)
discouragement – unlustus (m. U)
dishonour – unswerei (f. N)
disobedience – ufarhauseins (f. I/O)
disorderly – ungatewiþs (past-perf)
dispensation – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
disposed – garaiþs (adj. A)
disputed – *andsakans (part-perf)
disputer – sokareis (m. Ja)
disregard, to – ~ life = ufarmunnon (II weak) saiwalai
distaff – *rukka (m. N)
distress – aggwiþa (f. O)
ditch – dals (m. Noun)
division – missaqiss (f. I) (in opinion between people)
divorce, to – afsatjan (I weak)
divorcement – afsateins (f. I/O)
doctor – laisareis (m. Ja), ~ of the law = witodalaisareis (m. Ja)
doctrine – laiseins (f. I/O)
dominion – fraujinassus (m. U)
donkey – assilus (m. U)
doomsday – *stauadags (m. A)
doubting – tweifleins (f. I/O)
download, to – *ufarbairan (IV abl)
dragma – drakma (m. N)
dragon – 1. *waurms (m. A) 2. *draka (m. An)
dream – 1. *swifns (m. A) 2. *draums (m. A)
dream, to – *draumjan (heavy i weak), I dreamed = mik draumida
drink, to – drigkan (III abl)
drugs – *lubi (n. Ja)
drunk, to be – anadrigkan (III abl) + dat
drunkard – afdrugkja (m. N)
drunkenness – drugkanei (f. N)
dry – þaursus (adj. U)
dryad (wood-dweller) – *widugauja (m. N)
duchess – *harjatugo (f. N)
Dublin – *Swartaswumfsl (n. A)
duke – *harjatuga (m. N)
dust – stubjus (m. U)
Dutch – 1. *niþralandja (m. N) 2. *niþralandisks (adj. A)
dwarf – *dwairgs (m. A)
dying – dauþeins (f. I/O)
eager – gairns (adj.)
eagle – ara (m. N)
ear – auso (n. N), ~ of corn = ahs (n. A)
earl – *airls (m. A)
earlier – airis
early – air
earnest – wadi (n. Ja)
earth – airþa (f. O)
earthquake – reiro (f. N)
earthy – 1. airþeins (adj. A) 2. airþakunds (adj. A) (only occurs once in the skeireins)
easier – raþiza (Comp.)
east – 1. *austrs (m. A) 2. *austra- (adj.), from the ~ = *austana, in the ~ = *austar, to the ~ = *austar
eastwards – *austar
easy – azets (adj. A)
eat, to – matjan (I j weak)

eclipse
– solar ~ = sunnins riqis (n. A), lunar ~ = menins riqis (n. A)

Edda
– *Izdo (f. N)
edification – gatimreins (f. I/O)
eel – *els (m. A)
egg – *addjis (n. A)

either~ … or = andizuh … aiþþau
elbow
– *aleinabuga (m. N)
elder – 1. alþeis (adj. Ja) 2. praizbwtairei (f. N) (from jewish religion)
election – gawaleins (f. I/O)
electron – *elaiktraun (n.)
electronics – *elaiktraunika (n. A plural)
element – stafs (m. I) (f changes to b in gen. and dat. Sing. and all plural forms)
elf – *albs (m. A)
email – 1. *e-bokos (f. O plural) (a mail itself) 2. *waurdasandja (f. O) (e-mail service) (lit. word-sender) 3. *waurdjo (f. Jon) (e-mail service) (lit. worder)
embassador – to be ~ = airinon (II weak)
emerald – *smaragdus (m. U)
emotion – *ahins (undeclined) drobna (m. N)
emperor – kaisar (m. A)
empty – laus (adj. A), with ~ hands = laushandus (adj. U)
end – andeis (m. Ja)
endless – 1. andalaus 2. andilaus (adj. A)
endure, to – usbeidan (I abl) + acc
enemy – fijands (m. Nd)
energy – *mahts (f. I)
England – land (n. A) *aggile
English – *Aggils (adj. A)
Englishman – *Aggils (m. A)
enmity – fijaþwa (f. O)
enough – it is ~ = ganah
envy – neiþ (n. A)
equality – ibnassus (m. U)
error – 1. airzei (f. N) 2. airziþa (f. O)
escape, to – unþaþliuhan (II abl) + acc
Esperanto – *Aispairanto (f. N)
estate – 1. low ~ = hnaiweins (f. I/O) 2. *oþal (n. A)
eternal – aiweins (adj. A)
eternity – 1. aiws (m. A/I) (accusative plural declines as aiwins, the rest as an a-stem) 2. ajukduþs (f. I)
Europe – *aiwropa (f. O)
European – 1. (noun) *Aiwropus (m. U/I 2. *aiwropisks (adj. A)
evangelist – aiwaggelista (m. N)
evening – andanahti (n. Ja)
everlasting – aiweins (adj. A)
evermore – framwigis
every – 1. hvarjis (m.) (dat. = hvarjammeh, acc. = hvarjanoh) 2. hvarjatoh (n.) (gen. = hvarjizuh, dat. = hvarjammeh) 3. *hvarjoh (f.) (gen. = *hvarjizozuh, dat. = *hvarjaih acc. = hvarjoh) 4. in ~ thing = in allamma
everywhere – hvaruh
evil – unþiuþ (n. A)
exalt, to – ushauhjan (I i)
examine, to – ussokjan (I i weak)
example – frisahts (f. I)
exclude, to – usletan (V red abl)
excess – usstiurei (f. N)
except – alja + dat
excuse oneself, to – 1. sik faurqiþanana/a haban, (m) excuse me = habai mik faurqiþanana (f) habai mik faurqiþana 2. sunjon (II weak)
exercise – usþroþeins (f. I/O)
experiment – gakusts (f. I)
explanation – skeireins (f. I/O)
extraordinary – ussindo
eye – augo (n. N), evil ~ = augo unsel, ~ of a needle = þairko (n. N), with one ~ = haihs (adj. A)
eyeliner – *augaswartis (n. A)
eyewitness – silbasiuneis (m. Ja)
fable – spill (n. A)
face – 1. ludja (f. Jo) 2. wlits (noun)
fainted – afdauiþs (part-perf)
faith – galaubeins (f. I/O)
faithful – galaubeins (adj. A)
falcon – *habuks (m. A)
fall – drus (m. Noun) (dative singular = drusa)
fall, to – 1. driusan (II abl), ~ down = atdriusan (II abl), ~ from = usdriusan (II abl), ~ upon = disdriusan (II abl) + acc 2. walwison (II weak), ~ on the ground = ana airþa walwison (II weak)
fallow – *falws (adj. Wa)
fame – doms (m. A)
famine – huhrus (m. U)
fan – winþiskauro (f. N) (to blow wind)
farao – farao (m. N)
fasting – lausqiþrei (f. N)
fate – *waurþs (f. I)
father – 1. atta (m. N) 2. fadar (m. R) (Only occurs once and used for an earthly father, but atta can be used for an earthly father too.)
fatigue, to – *afdojan (I weak)
favoured – audahafts (adj. A)
fear – agis (n. A)
feast – dulþs (f. I)
feather – *fiþra (f. O)
feeble – gamaiþs (adj.)
feebleminded – grindafraþjis (adj. Ja)
fellowship – gamainei (f. N)
female – qineins (adj. A)
Fenrir (wolf myth.) – *fanareis (m. Ja)
fetters – þo ana fotum eisarna (n. A)
fever – 1. brinno (f. N) 2. heito (f. N)
few – faus (adj. A)
fiend – fijands (m. Cons.)
fiery – funisks (adj. A)
fig – smakka (m. N)
fig tree – smakkabagms (m. A)
fight, to – 1. jiukan (III weak) 2. haifstjan (I i weak)»
(only occurs once) 3. weihan (I abl)0)
fighting – waihjo (f. N)
fill, to – fulljan (I i weak), get filled, to – fullnan (IV weak)
film – *film (n. A)
filthiness – bisauleins (f. I/O)
filthy – ~ lucre = aglaitigastalds (adj. A)t
finger – figgrs (m. A)
Finland – *Finnahaiþi (f. Jo)
Finn – *Finnahaiþas
Finnish – *Finnisks (adj. A)
fire – fon (noun) (gen. Sing. = funins, dat. Sing. = funin)
first – 1. frumist 2. fruma (adj. A weak)
firstfruit – ufarskafts (f. I)
fish – fisks (m. A)
fisher – fiskja (m. N)
fit – 1. gatils (adj. A) 2. fagrs (adj. A)
fit, to – gamanwjan (I i weak)
fitly – gatemiba
five – fimf
flag – *fana (m. N)
flee, to – afþliuhan (II abl) (perfective)
flesh – mammo (f. N) (human meat) 2. mimz (noun) (of meat to eat)
flight – þlauhs (m. I)
flock – aweþi (n. Ja)
flood – 1. ahwa (f. O) 2. garunjo (f. N) 3. midjaswipains (f. I) (natural disaster)
flood, to – swipan (III)
floor – gaþrask (n. A)
flower – bloma (m. N)
flower, to – *blauan (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
flute – to play ~ = swiglon (II weak)
fly, to – *fliugan (II)
foam – hvaþo (f. N)
follow, to – afarlaistjan (I i weak) + dat
follower – galaista (m. N)
foolishness – 1. unwiti (n. Ja) 2. niuklahei (f. N)
foot – fotus (m. U)
football – *fotuballa (m. N)
for – 1. (For as intention) dative use, eg. For him = imma 2. faur (for something) 3. in þis (because) 4. aul (only in second or third position) (synonym of because as giving a reason)
forbid, to – warjan (i weak j)
forefathers – airizans (Comp. Weak)
forest – *widus (m. U)
forget, to – ufarmunnon (II weak)
forgiveness – fralet (n. A)
fork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
form, to – gadigan (abl I)
fornication – 1. kalkinassus (m. U) 2. horinassus (m. U)
forsake, to – bileiþan (I)
forum – *maþl (n. A) (online too)
found, to – gasuljan (I j weak)
foundation – 1. gaskafts (f. I) (as in foundation of the world) 2. *gasuleins (f. I/O) 3. grunduwaddjus (m. U) (stone wall)
fountain – brunna (m. N)
four – fidwor, dat. = fidworim
fox – fauho (f. N)
fragment – gabruko (f. O)
France – *Fragkaland (n. A)
free – freis (adj. Ja), ~ from = freis (adj. Ja) + gen, for ~ / ~ of charge = arwjo (adv.)
freedom – 1. freihals (m. A) 2. frijei (f. N) (only one occurence)
freeman – fralets (m. Noun)
freemason – 1. *freitimrja (m. N) 2. *frijatimrja (m. N)
freemasonry – *freitimreins (f. I/O) 2. *frijatimreins (f. I/O)
Freyja – frauja (f. O)
Freyr – fraujis (m. Ja)
freeze, to – friusan (II)
Friday – *fraujins dags (m. A)
friend – 1. (m.) frijonds (m. Nd) 2. (f.) frijondi (f. Jo)
fright – agis (n. A)
frog – *frusks (m. A)
frost – frius (n. A)
fruit – akran (n. A), to bring ~ = gawrisqan (III abl)
fruitless – akranalaus (adj. A)
fulfilling – usfulleins (f. I/O)
full – fulls (adj. A) + gen (gen. is used when translated as full of)
fuller – wullareis (m. Ja)
fullness – fullo (f. N)
furtherance – framgahts (f. I)
future – 1. *anawairþ (n. A) 2. anawairþs (adj. A)
gain – faihugawaurki (n. Ja) (gain in possession)
Galatia – Galatia (f. O)
Galatian – Galateis (m. I)
Galilee – Galeilaius (m. U/I)
garden – aurtigards (m. I)
garment – snaga (m. N)
gate – 1. daur (n. A) 2. dauro (f. N)
gather, to – lisan (V abl.)
gathering – gaqumþs (m. I)
gay – *samalustja (m. N) (homosexual)
Geat – *gauts (m. A)
genealogy – gabaurþiwaurd (n. A)
genitive – *gainiteibus (m. U)
gentle – qairrus (adj. U)
gentleness – 1. selei (fu. N) 2. mukamodei (f. N)
geological – *airþaleis (adj. A)
geologist – 1. *airþaleis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *airþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
geology – *airþaleisei (f. N)
German – *gairmanisks (adj. A)
Germanism – *Gairmanismus (m. U)
Germany – *Gairmanja (f. O)
ghost – ahma (m. N) (disembodied spirit)
giant – 1. *þauris (m. A) 2. *wrisja (m. N) (enormous)
gift – giba (f. O)
gird, to – bigairdan (III abl)
girdle – gairda (f. O)
girl – mawilo (f. N)
give, to – giban (V abl) + dat
giver – gibands (m. Nd)
glad – to be ~ = faginon (II weak)
gladly – gabaurjaba
gladness – swegniþa (f. O)
glitter, to – glitmunjan (I weak)
glory – wulþus (m. U)
glove – *lauhs (m. A)
glutton – afetja (m. N)
gnushing – krusts (m. Noun)
goal – mundrei (f. N)
goat – gaits (m. I), ~’s milk = gaitimiluks (f. Cons.)
God – 1. Guþ (m. A) (Abrahamic God) 2. Guþ (n. A) (other God then christian or jewish one), the form of ~ = gudaskaunei (f. N) 3. *ansus (m. U) (used for Germanic Gods)
goddess – *gudeinja (f. Jo)
godless – gudalaus (adj. A)
godliness – gagudei (f. N)
godly – 1. gudisks (adj. A) 2. gaguþs (adj. A)
gold – gulþ (n. A)
golden – gulþeins (adj. A)
good – goþs (adj. A)
goodness – selei (f. N)
goose – *gans (f. Cons.)
gospel – aiwaggeljo (f. N)
Goth – Guta (m. A)
Gothic – 1. *Gutisks (adj. A) 2. *~ language – Gutiska (adj. A) razda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O)
Gothiscandza – *Gutskaþja (f. Jo)
Goths – Gutþiuda (f. O) among the ~ – ana Gutþiudai
governor – kindins (m. A)
grace – ansts (f. I)
gracious – hulþs (adj. A)
grandfather – *awa (m. N)
grandma – awo (f. N)
grandmother – awo (f. N)
grandpa – *awa (m. N)
grape – weinabasi (n. Ja)
grass – hawi (n. Ja)
grave – 1. hlaiw (n. A) 2. gariuþs (adj. A)
graveyard – *nawistre gards (m. I)
great – mikils (adj. A)
greater – maiza (Comp.)
greatness – mikilei (f. N)
Greece – *Krekaland (n. A)
greed – 1. faihufrikei (f. N) 2. faihugairnei (f. N) 3. faihugeiro (f. N)
Greek – Kreks (m. A)
green – *groneis (adj. Ja)
Greenland – *Groniland (n. A)
Greenlandic – 1. *Gronilandisks (adj. A) 2. *Gronilandiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) (language)
greeting – goleins (f. I/O)
grey – *graus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
group – 1. kuni (n. Ja) (tribe or subdivision of hierarchy) 2. kubitus (m. U) (group around table)
grow, to – liudan (II abl)
hail – hagl (n. A)
half – 1. halba (f. O) 2. halbs (adj. A)
hand – handus (f. U)
happen, to – wairþan (III)
harbor – *habana (f. O)
hard – 1. hardus (adj. U) 2. aglus (adj. U) (synonym of difficult)
hardly – 1. harduba (adv) (adverb of hard) 2. agluba (synonym of difficult) 3. halisaiw (barely)
hardness – ~ of heart = harduhairtei (f. N)
haste – with ~ = sniumundo
hawk – *habuks (m. A)
heal, to – leikinon (II weak)
healing – leikinassus (m. U)
hear, to – 1. hausjan (I i weak) 2. hausjon (II weak)
heart – hairto (n. N), hardness of ~ = harduhairtei (f. N)
heaven – himins (m. A) (never with article, accompanying adjective always declines strongly)
heavenly – himinakunds (adj. A)
helmet – hilms (m. A)
Hebrew – 1. Haibraius (m. U/I) (person) 2. *Haibraiwisks (adj. A), ~ language = *Haibraiwiska (adj. A) razda (f. O)
hedge – faþa (f. O)
heel – fairzna (f. O)
height – hauhei (f. N)
heir – 1. arbja (m. N) 2. arbinumja (m. N)
heiress – arbjo (f. N)
hell – 1. gaiainna (noun) (Greek) 2. halja (f. O), to ~ with you = *Diabaulus þuk nimai
hello – 1. hails + voc (to a man), haila + voc (to a woman) 2. Golja þuk 3. Fagino
helmet – hilms (m. A)
Helsinki – *Halsiggefurs
hen – *hano (f. N)
herb – gras (n. A)
herd – hairda (f. O)
Herding (myth.) – *hazdiggs (m. A)
here – her
Herodian – Herodianus (m. U/I)
Herule – *Airuls (m. A)
hero – *haliþs / *haluþs (m. Cons.)
hew, to – ~ out = ushulon (II weak)
hi – see: hello
hide, to – affilhan (III abl)
hidden – 1. analaugns (adj. I) 2. fulgins (adj. A)
Hierapolis – Iairapaulei (noun)
high – hauhs (adj. A)
higher – 1. hauhis 2. auhuma (comp. Weak)
highway – wigs (m. A)
hill – hlain (n. A)
hill-country – bairgahei (f. N)
him – imma (dat) ina (acc)
hip – hups (m. I)
hireling – asneis (m. Ja)
his – is, seinis (gen. M/N), seinaizos (gen. F), seinamma (dat. M/N), seinai (dat. F), seinana (acc. M), seinaize (gen. M/N pl.), seinaizo (gen. F pl.), seinaim (dat. Pl.) seinans (acc. M. Pl.) seina (acc. N. Pl.), seinos (acc. F. Pl.)
history – *spill (n. A)
hither – hidre
Hlin (myth.) – *Hleins (m. A)
Hoder (myth.) – *Haflus (m. U)
hole – þairko (f. N)
holiness – weihiþa (f. O)
holocaust – alabrunsts (f. I)
holy – 1. weihs (adj. A)
home – gards (m. I), to take ~ = in gard tiuhan, at ~ = anahaimeis (adj. Ja), far from ~ = afhaimeis (adj. Ja)
homosexual – *samalustja (m. N)
honesty – gariudi (n. Ja)
honestly – garedaba
honey – miliþ (n. A), bee ~ = biwamiliþ (n. A)
honourable – 1. galaufs (adj. A) 2. gaguds (adj)
hope – 1. wens (f. I) 2. lubains (f. I)
horse – *marhs (m. A)
hospitable – gastigoþs (adj. A)
hospitality – gastigodei (f. N)
host – wairdus (m. U)
hostile – andaneiþs (adj. A)
hotel – *haribairgo (f. N)
hour – hweila (f. O)
house – 1. razn (n. A) 2. gards (m. I) (also used as family)
hovercraft – *ufarwataskip (n. A)
how – 1. (int.) Hvaiwa 2. Hvan ( as in: how narrow or how much, how nice)
human – manna (m. N)
humanity – manniskodus (m. U)
Hungarian – 1. *Hungarus (m. U/I) 2. *Hungariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Hungarisks (adj. A)
Hungary – *Hungarja (f. O)
hunger – 1. gredus (m. U) 2. huhrus (m. U)
hungry – gredags (adj. A)
hunny – miliþ (n. A)
hurry, to – sniwan (V abl)
husband – aba (m. N)
hypocrite – 1. liuts (adj. A) 2. liuta (m. N)
I – ik (only used for comparison or emphasis)
ice – *eis (n. A)
Iceland – (neol.) eisaland (n. A)
idea – mitons (f. I)
idiot – 1. (m.) dwala (m. N) 2. (f.) dwalo (f. N)
idolatry – galiugagude skalkinassus (m. U) (first part undeclined)
if – 1. ~, indeed (expected answer is yes) = jabai 2. (Expected answer is no), nibai 3. (Rhetorical) Ibai
illuminate, to – galiuhtjan (I weak)
illumination – *galiuhteins (f. I/O)
image – manleika (m. N)
imagination – gahugds (f. I)
immediately – suns
immortal – unriurs (adj. I)
immortality – undiwanei (f. N)
impetuous – gaheis (adj. Ja)
importance – wulþrs (f. I)
important – wulþrais (genitive of sing. worth), it is ~ = wulþrais ist
imprisonment – karkara (f. O)
incinerate, to – *frabrannjan
incontinency – ungahobains (f. I)
increase – uswahst (f. I)
increase, to – biaukan (VII)
infirmity – unmahts (f. I)
inheritance – arbi (n. Ja)
inheritor – arbinumja (m. N)
injure, to – holon (II weak)
injustice – ungaraihtei (f. N)
ink – *swartis (n. A)
inspiration – ahmateins (f. I/O)
insurrection – auhjodus (m. U)
intention – muns (m. I)
intercession – liteins (f. I/O)
interest – leihwa (f. O) (finance)
international – *miþþiudisks (adj. A)
internet – (neol.) miþnati (n. Ja)
intreaty – usbloteins (f. I/O)
invisible – *unanasiuns (adj. I)
inwardly – innaþro
iron – eisarneins (adj. A)
island – hulms (m. A)
Israel – Israel (m. A)
Israeli – 1. Israelitus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Israelisks (adj. A)
Italian – 1. *Italus (m. U/I) 2. *Italiska (adj. A) razda 3. *Italisks (adj. A)
Italy – *Italja (f. O)
Japan – (neol.) Iapan (m. A)
Jericho – Eiairiko (f. N)
Jerusalem – Iairusalem (same in all cases except for genitive Iairusalems)
jesting – saldra (f. O)
Jesus – Iesus (m. A)
Jew – Iudaius (m. U/I)
jewel – precious ~ = *airknastains (m. A)
Jewish – iudaiwisks (adj. A)
job – arbaiþs (f. I)
join, to – ~ together = gagatilon (II weak)
Jordan – Iaurdanus (m. U/I)
journey – wratodus (m. U)
joy – faheþs (f. I)
Judea – Iudaia (f. O)
judge – staua (m. N)
judgement – staua (f. O)
jug – aurkeis (m. Ja)
just – 1. (only) þatainei 2. ~ as = swaswe
keep, to – bairgan (III abl) + dat (as in to keep something)
key – *lukils (m. A)
keyboard – *bokabaurd (n. A) (computer)
kill, to – afslahan (VI)
king – þiudans (m. A)
kingdom – þiudinassus (m. U)
kiss – frijons (f. I)
kiss, to – kukjan (I) + dat
kiwi – 1. *kiwi (n. Ja) 2. *keiwei (f. N)
knee – kniu (n. Wa)
kneeling – *knussus (m. U)
knife – 1. *kneifs (m. A) 2. *kneiba (m. N) 3. *sahs (n. A)
knock, to – *knukon (II weak)
know, to – kunnan (prt-prs)
knowledge – kunþi (n. Ja)
lack – waninassus (m. U)
labour – arbaiþs (f. I)
lack – gaidw (n. A)
laugh, to~ at = bihlahjan (VI)
lake – marisaiws (m. Noun)
lamb – 1. lamb (n. A) 2. wiþrus (m. U) (only one occurence) 3. *lambamimz (noun) (To eat as flesh)
lame – halts (adj. A)
lament, to – 1. qainon (II weak) 2. gaunon (II weak)
land – land (n. A), ancestral ~ = *oþal (n. A), ~ which one owns = haimoþli (n. Ja)
Laodicea – Laudeikaia (noun)
lasciviousness – aglaitei (f. N)
last – 1. aftumists (adj. A) 2. spedumists (adj. A) 3. spediza (Comp.), only in: ist so spedeizei airziþa wairsizei þizai frumein = the last error shall be worst than the first 3. aftuma (comp.) (Of two)
late – seiþus (adj. U)
lately – *niujaba
latrine – *gaggs (m. A)
law – witoþ (n. A), under the ~ = uf witoda, doctor of the ~ = witodalaisareis (m. Ja), giving of the ~ = witodis garaideins (f. I/O)
lawfulit is ~ = binah
lawless – witodalaus (adj. A)
lawyer – witodafasteis (m. Ja)
lay, to – ~ down = afhnaiwjan (I i weak)
lead, to – tiuhan (II abl), ~ up = ustiuhan (II abl), ~ about = bitiuhan (II abl)
leaf – laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
learned – *uslaisiþs (past-perf), never ~ = unuslaisiþs (past-perf)
least – 1. minnists (adj. Superl.) 2. smalista (suprl.) (Weak)
leather – filleins (adj. A)
leave, to – ~ with = bileiþan (I abl.)
leaven – beist (n. A)
left – hleiduma (Comp.)
length – laggei (f. N)
leper – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
lesbian – *samalustjo (f. N)
less – 1. mins 2. minniza (Comp.)
let, to – letan (V abl red)
letter – boka (f. O)
library – 1. *bokarazn (n. A) 2. *bokahus (n. A)
lie, to – ligan (V abl) (to lie down somewhere)
Liechtenstein – (neol) Liuhtastains (m. A)
light – 1. liuhaþ (n. A) 2. liuhadei (f. N) 3. leihts (adj. A)
light, to – tandjan (I weak i)
lighthouse – *liuhadakelikn (n. A)
lightning – lauhmuni (f. Jo)
like – 1. swa (As in: Just like him) 2. galeiks (adj. A) (As in: It is like/resembles)
like, to – galeikan (III) (as in, to like something) + dat
likewise – samaleiko
linen – ~ cloth = lein (n. A)
linguist – 1. *razdaleis (m. A) 2. *razdaleisa (f. O)
linguistics – *razdaleisei (f. N)
list – wiko (f. N)
literacy – *bokaleisei (f. N)
literature – *bokaleisei (f. N)
liver – *miltja
lock, to – lukan (II abl), (he/she locked = lauk)
locust – þramstei (f. N)
Loki (myth.) – 1. *lauha (m. N) 2. *luka (m. N)
load, to – *usbriggan (III abl) (digital)
loin – hups (m. I)
long – laggs (adj. A)
longsuffering – usbeisnei (f. N)
look, to – 1. saihvan (V abl) 2. ~ around = ussaihvan (V abl), wlaiton (II weak)
loop – wruggo (f. N)
loot – *raupa (f. O)
lord – frauja (m. N)
lose, to – fraliusan (II abl) + dat
loss – sleiþa (f. O)
lot – 1. a ~ of = filu + gen 2. hlauts (m. A), ~ imma urran = he was chosen by lot
love – frijaþwa (f. O), brotherly ~ = broþrulubo (f. N)
love, to – frijon (II weak) + acc
lump – daigs (m. Noun)
lust – lustus (m. U)
Luxemburg – (neol) leitilabaurgs (f. Cons)
Macedonia – Makaidonja (f. O)
Macedonian – Makidons (m. I)
machine – *sarwa (n. Wa)
mad – to be ~ = dwalmon (II weak)
madness – unfrodei (f. N)
magazine – *leihtos bokos (f. O plural)
Magdeburg – (neol) Magaþsbaurgs (f. Cons)
magic – lubjaleisei (f. N)
magical – *lubjaleis (adj. A)
magically – *lubjaleisaba
maimed – gamaiþs (adj. A)
make-up – *smikwa (f. O) (Italian = smeco) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
male – 1. gumein (n. A) 2. gumakunds (adj. A)
malice – balwawesei (f. N)
man – 1. manna (m. Cons) (plural nom + acc = mans) (human in general) 2. guma (m. N) (masculine person) 3. wair (m. A)
manger – uzeta (m. N)
manifestation – by ~ = bairhtein
mankind – manaseþs (f. I)
manner – sidus (m. U), ~ of life = usmet (n. A)
mark – staks (m. I)
market – maþl (n. A) black ~ = swart (adj. A) maþl (n. A)
marmelade – *akranamimz (noun) miþ sakkara
marshall – *marhaskalks (m. A)
marvellous – sildaleiks (adj. A)
Marxism – *Marksismus (m. U)
Marxist – *Marksistus (m. U)
matter – doesn’t ~ to me = mis wulþrais nist
me – 1. (Dat) mis 2. (Acc) mik
mead – *midus (m. U) (loanword in Ancient Greek)
meal – mats (m. I)
mean, to – 1. (to signify, what a word means) wisan, gaskeirjan (I) 2. (to intend to) munnan
measure – 1. mitaþs (f. Cons.) 2. mitadjo (f. N)
measure, to – mitan (V abl)
meat – mimz (noun)
mechanical – *maikanikisks (adj. A)
mechanics – *maikanika (n. A plural)
media – 1. *maidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *meidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
meditate, to – sis siþon (II weak)
member – 1. gadaila (m. N) (of group of people) 2. liþus (of body) 3. ~ of the tribe = inkunja (m. N)
memorial – gamunds (f. I)
memory – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
merciful – bleiþs (adj)
merciful, to be – bleiþjan (I weak i)
mercy – 1.bleiþei (f. N) 2. mildiþa (f. O) 3. gableiþeins (f. I/O)
mediator – midumonds (m. Nd)
message – waurd (n. A)
messenger – airus (m. U)
metal – 1. *maital (n. A) (W. E) 2. *maitaleins (adj. A)
metallic – *maitaleins (adj. A)
midst – midjis (adj. Ja)
mile – rasta (f. O)
milk – miluks (f. Cons)
milky way – *milukswigs (m. A)
millstone – asiluqairnus (f. U)
mind – 1. gahugds (f. I) 2. aha (m. N) 3. hugs (m. Noun) (only occurs once) 4. of one ~ = samafraþjis (adj. Ja)
minister – andbahts (m. A)
ministery – *andbahti (n. Ja)
minstrel – swiglja (m. N)
miracle – fauratani (n. Ja) (as a sign)
mirror – skuggwa (m. N)
miserable – arms (adj. A)
mistletoe – *mistils (m. A)
mock, to – bilaikan (VII)
moderation – anawiljei (f. N)
moisture – qrammiþa (f. O)
moon – mena (m. N)
Monday – *menins dags (m. A)
month – menoþs (f. Cons), dat. Pl. = menoþum
money – 1. skatts (m. A)
moneychanger – skattja (m. N)
moral – godei (f. N)
morning – 1. maurgins (m. Noun) 2. uhtwo (f. N)
mortality – *diwanei (f. N)
moth – *malo (n. N)
mother – aiþei (f. N), wife’s ~ = swaihro (f. N)
mountain – fairguni (n. Ja)
mourn, to – hiufan (II abl)
mourning – gaunoþus (m. U)
mouth – munþs (m. Noun)
move, to – inwagjan (I weak j) (move someone to do something)
movie – *film (n. A)
mr. – *Frauja (m. N)
mugwort – *bibauts
multimedia – 1. *managmaidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *managmeidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
multitude – 1. managei (f. N) 2. iumjo (f. N) 3. hiuhma (m. N)
murderer – manamaurþrja (m. N)
muzzle, to – faurmuljan (I i weak) + acc
my – meins (possessive pronoun, always declined strongly)
mystery – runa (f. O)
mystical – *garunileiks (adj. A strong)
naked – naqaþs (adj. A)
nakedness – naqadei (f. N)
name – namo (n. N) (plural nom = namna, plural dat = namnam)
napkin – aurali (n. Ja)
Naples – *Napleis (I)
narrow – aggwus (adj. U)
nation – þiuda (f. O)
national – *þiudisks (adj. A)
nature – wists (f. I), by ~ = wistai, wild by ~ = aljakuns (adj. A)
near – nehva
necessity – andawizn (f. I)
neck – 1. hals (m. Noun) 2. halsagga (m. N)
needle – neþla (f. O)
neglecting – unfreideins (f. I/O)
neighbour – garazno (f. N) (female neighbour) , garazna (m. N) (male neighbour, in plural both genders)
nest – sitls (m. A)
Netherlands – *niþralanda (n. A) (plural)
network – *ganati (n. Ja)
neuron – *niuraun (n. A)
neutron – *niutraun (n. A)
next – the ~ day = iftumin daga
new – niujis (adj. Ja)
newness – niujiþa (f. O)
news – spill (n. A)
Nibelungen – *hnibiluggos (m. A) (plural)
night – nahts (f. Cons), (in days and ~s = in dagam jah nahtam, normally dative plural is nahtim)
Niord (myth.) – *Nairþus (m. U)
noble – godakunds (adj. A)
noise – to make ~ = auhjon (II weak)
nominative – *nominateibus (m. U)
north – 1. *naurþrs (m. A) 2. *naurþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *naurþana, in the ~ = *naurþar, to the ~ = *naurþar
northwards – *naurþar
Norway – *Naurþrawigs (m. A)
noseto clear ones ~ = *snutjan
novice – *niujasatiþs (part-perf)
now – nu
number – raþjo (f. N)
oath – aiþs (m. A)
obedience – ufhauseins (f. I/O)
oblivion – ufarmaudei (f. N)
observation – atwitains (f. I)
observe, to – witan (III) + dative
Odin – *Wodans (m. A)
odour – dauns (f. I)
Oegir (myth.) – *Ogeis (m. Ja)
offend, to – afmarzjan (I i weak)
office – andbahti (n. Ja), ~ of the priest = gudjinassus (m. U)
offline – *afganatjis (adj. Ja)
often – ufta
oil – alew (n. A)
ointment – salbons (f. I)
old – fairneis (adj. Ja)
oldness – fairniþa (f. O)
olive – alew
olive tree – alewabagms (m. A)
omnibus – *allakarrahago (f. N) (W.E.)
on – (place) ana + dat
once – 1. simle (in the sense: once upon a time) 2. ainamma sinþa (one time)
one – ains (adj. A strong) 2. sums (one of people, so: one man = sums manna)
online – *anaganatjis (adj. Ja)
only – 1. þatainei (conjunction) (used as in: I only want ..) 2. ainaha (adj. A weak), the ~ son = sunus ainaha
open, to – uslukan (II abl), (he/she opened = uslauk)
opening – usluk (n. A)
openly – andaugjo
oppress, to – anapraggan (VII)
or – 1. þau (choice between two things) 2. aiþþau (choice between multiple things and other uses then in 1)
ordain, to – satjan (I j weak)
order – 1. tewa (f. O) 2. wiko (f. N), to set in ~ = atgaraihtjan (I i weak)
ordered – 1. garaiþs (adj. A) 2. *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
orderly – gatewiþs (past-perf)
ordinance – garaideins (f. I/O)
origin – ussateins (f. I/O)
Oslo – *Ansulauha
Ostrogoth – *Austraguta (m. N)
Ostrogothic – *Austragutisks (adj. A)
otherwise – aljaleikos (adv)
our – unsar (posessive pronoun, always strongly declined)
outer – hindumists (adj. Superl.)
outside – uta, from the ~ = utana + gen
oven – auhns (m. Noun)
overshadow, to – ufarskadwjan (I i weak)
ox – 1. auhsus (m. U) 2. auhsa (m. N) (only one occurence) 3. stiur (m. A)
page – *laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
pair – gajuk (n. A)
palace – rohsns (f. I)
palm – ~ of hand = lofa (noun)
pants – *broks (f. Cons.)
paper – *karta (f. O)
parable – gajuko (f. N)
parchment – maimbrana (m. N)
parent – berusi (m. Ja)
parents – berusjos (m. Ja) (plural)
part – dails (f. I)
partiality – wiljahalþei (f. N)
participant – gamainja (m. N)
participation – daila (f. O)
party – dulþs (f. I)
pass, to – usleiþan (I abl)
passover – 1. paska (feast) 2. pasxa (feast)
password – (neol) *gamotawaurd (n. A)
pastel – *wai(z)da (f. O)
pastry – *bakeins (f. I/O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
pasture – winja (f. Jo)
path – staiga (f. O)
patience – usþulains (f. I)
pay, to – usgildan (V abl)
peace – gawairþi (n. Ja)
peaceable – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peaceful – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
pedophilia – *barnalubo (f. N)
pedophile – 1. *barnalubja (m. N) (male) 2. *barnalubjo (f. N) (female)
penny – 1. assarjus (m. U) 2. kintus (m. U)
people – þiuda (f. O)
pepper – *pipr (n. A) (W. E)
perceive, to – gaumjan (I) + dat
perfect – 1. fullatojis (adj. Ja) 2. (adv) glaggwuba 3. fullawita (m. N)
perishing – riurei (f. N)
permission – *andlet (n. A)
permittedit is ~ = binah
persecute, to – wrikan (V abl)
persecution – 1. wrakja (f. Jo) 2. wraka (f. O) 3. wrekei (f. N)
persecutor – wraks (m. Noun)
persuasion – gakunds (f. I)
Pharisee – Fareisaius (m. U/I)
Phenician – fwnikisks (adj. A)
philosopher – 1. handugs (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. handuga (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
phoenix – *fonfugls (m. A)
physician – lekeis (m. Ja)
pillar – sauls (f. I)
pillow – waggareis (m. Ja)
pinnacle – gibla (m. N)
pipe, to – swiglon (II weak)
pitchfork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
pity, to – arman (III weak)
plague, to – balwjan (I weak)
plan – garehsns (f. I)
plant, to – satjan (I j weak)
pleasant – andanems (adj. A)
please, to – galeikan (III weak) + dat
pleasure – gabaurjoþus (m. U)
pledge, to – gawadjon (II weak)
plough – hoha (m. N)
pluck, to – raupjan (I weak i)
poem – *liuþ (n. A)
poet – liudareis (m. Ja)
poison – *aitr (n. A)
Poland – *Paulaland (n. A)
Polish – 1. *paulisks (adj. A)p
police – *wardjans (m. N, plural of wardja)
police officer – 1. *wardja (m. N) 2. *wardjo (f. N)
political – *paulitikisks (adj. A) (W. E.)
politics – *paulitika (f. O) (W. E.)
pope – *papa (m. N)
pork – *sweinamimz (noun)
porter – 1. daurawards (m. A) 2. daurawarda (f. O)
Portugal – *Paurtukaljis (m. Ja)
possess, to – gastaldan (VII)
possessed – one ~ with devils = daimonareis (m. Ja)
post – *waurd (n. A) (in forum or blog)
pot – 1. *aurkjus (m. U/I) 2. *aurkeis (m. Ja)
potter – kasja (m. N)
pour, to – giutan (II abl)
power – mahts (f. I)
praise, to – hazjan (I weak j)
pray, to – bidjan (V abl irregular), he/she prayed = baþ
prayer – bida (f. O)
preach, to – merjan (I i weak)
preacher – merjands (m. Nd)
preaching – mereins (f. I/O)
precept – anabusns (f. I)
predestinate, to – fauragaraidan (V abl red) (he/she predestinated = fauragarairoþ)
preeminence – frumadei (f. N)
preferable – þishun
pregnant woman – 1. inkilþo (f. N), wisandei ~ = being great with a child, to be pregnant 2. qiþuhafto (f. N)
prejudice – faurdomeins (f. O)
preparation – manwiþa (f. O)
prepared – manwus (adj. U)
present – anahaimeis (adj. Ja) (at home)
present, to – atsatjan (I i weak j)
presentation – *atsateins (f. I/O)
presbytery – praizbwtairei (f. N)
presider (liturgies) – faurstasseis (m. Ja)
press, to – anatrimpan (III abl)
pretence – inilo (f. N)
price – wairþ (m. A)
pride – hauhhairtei (f. N)
priest – gudja (m. N), chief ~ = ufargudja (m. N)
prince – reiks (m. Cons.)
print, to – *usmeljan (I i weak)
printer – *usmeljo (f. N)
priority – frumadei (f. N)
prison – karkara (f. O)
prisoner – bandja (m. N)
privately – sundro
privy – *gaggs (m. A)
prize – sigislaun (n. A)
progress – framgahts (f. I)
problem – aglo (f. N)
profit – bota (f. O)
profitable – bruks (adj. A)
project – *faurawaurpa (f. O) (reconstructed by Tom de Herdt)
promise – gahait (n. A)
proof – kustus (m. U) ( as in a challenge)
prophet – praufetes (m. U/I)
prostitute – kalkjo (f. N)
prostitution – kalkinassus (m. U)
proton – *protaun (n.)
proud – hauhþuhts (adj. A)
proud-hearted – hauhhairts (adj. A)
provoke, to – ushaitan (I red)
psychiatrist – *ahalekeis (m. Ja)
psychological – *ahaleis (adj. A)
psychologist – 1. *ahaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *ahaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
psychology – *ahaleisei (f. N)
publican – motareis (m. Ja)
puff, to – ~ up = ufblesan (IV red)
pull – *tauhts (f. I)
pulling – *tauhts (f. I)
punishment – andabeit (n. A)
purity – hrainei (f. N)
purple – paurpuroþs (part-perf)
purpose – muns (m. I)
push, to~ aside = afskiuban (II)
put, to – lagjan (I weak j), ~ on = gahamon (II weak) + dat
pyramid – *pwramis
quantum-mechanics – *kwantum-maikanika (n. A plural)
queen – *þiudana (f. O)
question – sokns (f. I)
rabbi – rabbei (undeclined)
race – spaurds (f. Cons.) (Sports)
radio – 1. (neol) *luftustibna (f. O) 2. *radio (f. N) (loan)
ragnarökr – *ragine riqis (n. A)
rainbow – *rignabuga (m. N)
ranked – *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
ransom – andabauhts (f. I)
rationality – gafraþjei (f. N)
ray – *strela (f. O)
read, to – 1. (us)siggwan (III) 2. (Greek) anakunnan (III)
really – bi sunjai
reap, to – sneiþan (I abl)
reason – gafraþjei (f. N) (rationality, faculty of reason)
reasonable – 1. andaþahts (adj. A) 2. *andaþahtaba (adv)
rebuke, to – andbeitan (I abl)
receive, to – 1. niman (IV abl), 2. miþniman (iV abl)
receiving – andanumts (f. I)
recommendation – anafilh (n. A)
recompense – andalauni (n. Ja)
recompense, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
reconcile, to – ~ with = gafriþon (II weak) + dat
reconciliation – gafriþons (f. I)
red – rauþs (adj. A)
redemption – uslauseins (f. I/O)
reed – raus (n. A)
refrigerator – *koljo (f. N) (lit. Cooler)
regards – kind ~ = (rec.)
liubostons goleinins
region – fera (f. O)
register, to – anameljan (I)
registration – anameleins (f. I)
reject, to – 1. uskiusan (II abl) 2. andspeiwan (I abl)
release, to – fraletan (V)
remain, to – bileiban (I)
remembrance – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
remnant – laiba (f. O)
remission – aflageins (f. I/O)
renew, to – ananiujan (I weak)
repay, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
repent, to – idreigon (II weak), gaïdreigon (II weak)
reproach – idweit (n. A)
reproof – gasahts (f. I)
request – bida (f. O)
researcher – *sokareis (m. Ja)
rest – 1. gahveilains (f. I) 2. rimis (n. A)
restriction – gaaggwei (f. N)
resurrection – 1. usstass (f. I) 2. urrists (f. I) (only once)
reveal to – andhuljan (I i weak j)
revelation – andhuleins (f. I/O)
revelling – gabaur (m. A)
revenge, to – fraweitan (I abl)
revile, to – laian (V abl red) (they reviled = lailoun)
reward – 1. laun (n. A) 2. mizdo (f. N)
reward, to – usgildan (III abl.)
Reykjavik – *Raukiweika (f. O) (W.E.)
rich – gabigs (adj. A) (rich of = gabigs in + dat)
riches – 1. gabei (f. N) 2. faihu (n. U)
right – ~ side = taihswa (f. O)
righteousness – garaihteins (f. I/O)
ring – 1. figgragulþ (n. A) 2. *hriggs (m. A) (can used for form of a ring)
ring fight – brakja (f. Jo) (wrestling)
rip – gataura (m. N) (rip of garment)
river – ahwa (f. O)
robot – 1. *skalks (m. A) 2. *mahtiskalks (m. A)
rock – hallus (m. U)
rocket – *rukka (f. O)
rod – wandus (m. U)
roll, to – ~ away = afwalwjan (I i weak)
Roman – Rumonus (m. U/I) 2. Rumonisks (adj. A)
Rome – Ruma (f. O)
roof – hrot (n. A)
room – heþjo (f. N), large upper ~ = kelikn (n. A) mikilata (adj. A)
rooster – hana (m. N)
root – waurts (f. I)
rope – *sail (n. A)
Rosicrucian – *rausakrukeis (m. Ja)
round – *hriggaleiks (adj. A)
row – wiko (f. N)
rule – garaideins (f. I/O) (as in a rule, a guideline to be followed)
ruler – fraujinonds (m. Nd)
run, to – rinnan (III abl), ~ over = ufargiutan (II abl)
Russia – *Rusaland (n. A)
Russian – 1. *Rus (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Rusisks (adj. A)
rust – nidwa (noun)
sabbat – sabbatus (m. U), the day after ~ = afarsabbatus (m. U)
sackcloth – sakkus (m. U)
sacrifice – 1. hunsl (n. A) 2. sauþs (m. I)
sad – gaurs (adj. A)
safely – arniba
safety – þwastiþa (f. O)
saint – weiha (m. N)
salt – salt (n. A)
salutation – goleins (f. I/O)
salvation – 1. naseins (f. I/O) 2. ganists (f. I)
same – sama (adj. A, weak), at the ~ time = samana
sanctify, to – gaweihan (III weak)
sand – malma (m. N)
sapphire – *saffeirus (m. U)
satanism – *satanismus (m. U)
satanist – *satanistus (m. U)
Saturday – sabbato (undeclinable)
save, to – nasjan (I j weak)
say, to – qiþan (V abl) + dat
school – 1. *skaula (f. O) 2. *skola (f. O)
scorpion – skaurpjo (f. N)
scrip – matibalgs (m. I)
sea – 1. marei (f. N) 2. marisaiws (m. Noun)
seal – sigljo (n. N)
seal, to – faursigljan (I i weak)
search – sokeins (f. I/O)
season, to – gasupon (II weak)
secret – 1. runa (f. O) 2. analaugns (adj. A) in ~ = in analaugnein
secretly – analaugniba
security – þwastiþa (f. O)
see, to – saihvan (V abl.)
seed – fraiw (n. A)
seize, to – grepan (I)
self – silba (adj. A, weak)
sender – *sandja (f. O)
sepulchre – hlaiw (n. A)
servant – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. þiumagus (m. U) (young boy) 3. magus (m. U) (a young boy) 4. (Servants) þewisa (n. A)
serve, to – 1. skalkinon (II weak) + dat 2. andbahtjan (I i weak) + dat
service – 1. skalkinassus (m. U)
severity – hvassei (f. N)
sex – samakuns (adj. I) (in lustau)
shadow – skadus (m. U)
shake, to – gawagjan (I weak)
shame – aiwiski (n. Ja)
shameful – agls (adj. A)
sharply – hvassaba (as in severely)
shave, to – 1. kapillon (II) 2. biskaban (VI)
sheath – fodr (n. A)
sheepfold – awistr (n. A)
shekel – sikls (m. Noun)
shelter – *haribairgo (f. N)
shepherd – hairdeis (m. Ja)
shewing – ustaikneins (f. I/O)
shield – skildus (m. U)
shilling – skilliggs (m. A)
shine, to – glitmunjan (I i weak), ~ round = biskeinan (I abl)
shining – *blaiks (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
ship – skip (n. A)
shipwreck – to suffer ~ = usfarþon taujan us skipa
shit – 1. maihstus (m. U) 2. smarna (f. O)
shoe – skohs (m. A)
shoes – gaskohi (n. Ja)
short – maurgus (adj. U)
shortage – waninassus (m. U)
shorten, to – gamaurgjan (I)
shoulder – 1. ams (m. A) 2. amsa (m. N) (Only occurs once)
show, to – ataugjan (I i weak) (person/object to whom shown = dat., shown person/object = acc.)
sick – siuks (adj. A)
sickle – gilþa (f. O)
sickness – siukei (f. N)
sign – 1. taikns (f. I) 2. bandwa (f. Wo) 3. bandwo (f. N), sign, to = ufmeljan (I) + dative
signature – *ufmeleins (f. I/O)
silence – þahains (f. I) , in ~ = in hauniþai (f. O)
similar – galeiks (adj. A)
sin – frawaurhts (f. I)
sincerity – 1. unriurei (f. N) 2. unwammei (f. N) 3. hlutrei (f. N)
sing, to – ~ for someone = liuþon (II weak) + dat
singer – liuþareis (m. Ja)
singleness – ainfalþei (f. N)
Sion – Sion (noun)
sister – swistar (f. R)
sit, to – sitan (V abl)
skull – hvairnei (f. N)
slanderer – diabula (f. O)
slaughter – slauhts (f. I) (the act of slaughter)
Slav – *Sklabens (m. A) (W.E.)
slave – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. (house-servant) þius (m. U)
slavery – 1. skalkinassus (m. U) 2. þiwadw (noun)
Slavic – *Sklabenisks (adj. A)
slay, to – afslahan (VI)
sleep, to – slepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = saislep), to fall asleep = anaslepan (IV red)
sleight – filudeisei (f. N)
Slovakia – *Slaubakja (f. O)
Slovakian – 1. *Slaubakus (m. U/I) 2. *Slaubakiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Slaubakisks (adj. A)
small – leitils (adj. A)
smaller – minniza (Comp.)
smear, to – gasmeitan (I)
smell – dauns (f. I)
smooth – slaihts (adj. A)
snake – waurms (m. A)
snare – wruggo (f. N)
snot, to – *snutjan
snow – snaiws (noun)
snowman – snaiwsmanna (m. N)
soap – *saipjo (f. N) (W. E.)
sober – gafaurs (adj. I)
sobriety – inahei (f. N)
soft – hnasqus (adj. U)
softly – *hnasquba
soldier – gadrauhts (m. I)
solitary – auþeis (adj. Ja)
son – sunus (m. U)
son-in-law – megs (m. Noun)
song – liuþ (n. A)
soon – sprauto
sorrow – 1. gauriþa (f. O) 2. sair (n. A)
soul – saiwala (f. O)
sound – drunjus (m. U)
soup – *supa (f. O)
south – 1. *sunþrs (m. A) 2. *sunþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *sunþana, in the ~ = *sunþar, to the ~ = *sunþar
southwards – *sunþar
sow, to – 1. saian (V abl red) 2. insaïan (V abl red)
Spain – *Heispanja (f. O)
Spanish – 1. *Heispaniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Heispanisks (adj. A)
spear – *gais (m. A)
spearow – sparwa (m. N)
spectacle – fairweitl (n. A)
spend, to – fraqiman (IV)
sperm – *fraiw (n. A)
spikenard – nardus (m. U)
spirit – ahma (m. N) (Spirit from God or a human, for ghost, see ghost)
spiritual – ahmeins (adj. A)
spit, to – gaspeiwan (I abl)
spittle – speiskuldra (noun)
spleen – *miltja
sponge – swamms (m. A)
spoon – *spenus (m. U) (W.E.)
spring, to – keinan (I abl) (of seed), and the seed shall spring = jah þata fraiw keiniþ
spy – ferja (m. N)
stablish, to – tulgjan (I i weak)
stairs – *usstaiga (f. O) (W.E.)
stake – 1. hnuþo (f. N) 2. *staka (m. N)
stand, to – standan (VI abl)
star – stairno (f. N)
state – reiki (n. Ja)
stature – wahstus (m. U)
stave – walus (m. U)
steal, to – stilan (IV abl)
stedfast – tulgus (adj. U)
stedfastly – *tulguba
steel – stahl(s) (m., n. A) (W.E.)
steep – ~ place – driuso (f. N)
steward – fauragaggja (m. N)
stewardship – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
sting – gazds (m. A)
stinking – fuls (adj. A)
stir, to – gawagjan (I weak)
Stockholm – *Stukkahulms (m. A)
stone – stains (m. A), corner ~ = waihstastains (m. A)
stony – stainahs (adj. A)
stop, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (to stop something or someone else)
storm – skura (f. O), wind~ = skura windis, fire~ = *skura funins
stork – *udafara (m. N) (W.e.)
story – insahts (f. I)
straightway – sunsaiw
strait – aggwus (adj. U)
stranger – 1. gasts (m. I) 2. aljakuns (adj. I)
street – 1. gatwo (f. N) 2. plapja (f. O)
strength – swinþei (f. N)
strife – 1. sakjo (f. N) 2. ~ of words = waurdajiuka (f. O)
strike, to – *bautan (VII abl)
striker – slahals (m. Noun)
stripe – slahs (m. I)
strong – swinþs (adj. A)
stronger – swinþoza (Comp.)
student – siponeis (m. Ja)
subconscious – *ufgahugds (f. I)
subculture – *minniza (comp.) kunjahaidus (m. U)
subject – *ufwaurpa (f. O)
subjection – 1. ufhaiseins (f. I/O), 2. ufhnaiweins (f. I/O), to bring into ~ = anaþiwan (III weak)
subverting – uswalteins (f. I/O)
such – swaleiks (adj. A strong)
suck, to – 1. daddjan (I weak i) 2. *sugan (II abl) m
suddenly – anaks
suffer, to – (ga)winnan (III abl)
suffering – winno (f. N)
sufficienty – ganauha (m. N)
sugar – *sakkar (n. A) (W.E.)
suit, to – gatiman (IV)
summer – asans (f. I)
sun – 1. sunno (f. N) 2. (Only used once) sauil (n. A)
Sunday – *sunnins dags (m. A)
superfluous – ufjo
superscription – ufarmeleins (f. I/O)
supper – nahtamats (m. I)
supply – andstald (n. A)
surely – arniba
surmising – anaminds (f. I)
Surtur (myth.) – *Swartus (m. U)
Swede – *Sweja (m. N)
Sweden – *Swejaland (n. A)
sweet – sutis (adj. I) (most forms went over into -ja declension,
sweetly – *sutiba (adv)
swelling – ufswalleins (f. I/O)
sword – 1. hairus (m. U)
sycamine tree – bairabagms (m. A)
synagogue – swnagoge (f. Noun)
Syria – 1. Saurja (f. O) 2. Swria (f. O)
Syrian – (m.) Saur (m. U/I), (f.) Saur
tabernacle – 1. hliþra (f. O) 2. hlija (m. N)
table – 1. biuþs *(m. A) (table to eat) 2. mes (n. A) (table for working) 3. writing ~ = spilda (f. O), ~ of stone = spilda (f. O) staineina (adj. A)
tablet – spilda (f. O)
tag – (online) sokjawaurd (n. A)
tail – *spaurds (m. A)
take, to – niman (IV abl), ~ from = afholon (II weak), ~ out = usniman (IV abl)
talk, to – rodjan (I i weak)
tapas – *tappos (f. O) (plural)
taste, to – kausjan (I i weak) + acc
tax – 1. gild (n. A) 2. gilstr (n. A)
taxing – gilstrameleins (f. I/O)
tea – *hairbata (f. O) (W. E.)
teach, to – 1. laisjan (I i weak) 2. talzjan (I i weak)
teacher – 1. laisareis (m. Ja) 2. talzjands (m. Nd)
tear – gataura (m. N) (tearing of garment)tear, to – *tiran (IV), ~ apart = *tiran (IV) (loanword in Asturian)
telegraph – (neol) fairramelja (m. N)
telephone – 1. *razdasandja (f. O) 2. *stibnasandja (f. O) (lit. voice-transmitter) 3. *stibnjo (f. Jon) (lit. voicer) 4. *sandja (f. O) (lit. sender)
television – 1. *siunisandja (f. O) (lit. image-transmitter) 2. *manleikasandja (f. O) 3. *siunjo (f. Jon) (lit. sighter) 5. *manleikjo (f. Jon) (lit. Imager)
temple – alhs (m. Cons)
tempt, to – 1. fraisan (I red) 2. usfraisan (I red)
temptation – fraistubni (f. Jo)
tender – þlaqus (adj. U)
tent – hleiþra (f. O)
terror – agis (n. A)
test – kustus (m. U)
testimony – 1. weitwodiþa (f. O) 2. weitwodei (f. N)
tetrach – fidurragini (n. Ja)
thank, to – awiliudon (II) + dative
thanks – awiliuþ (n. A)
that – 1. þata 2. (Conj.) þatei, ei (as in: I see that I ….) 3. so ~ = ei … + opt 4. (Dem. Pron.) see: this
the – (Only used in emphasis or comparison and after a noun is used for the first time), see: this
theft – þiubi (n. Ja)
their – 1. (m.) ize 2. (f.) izo
them – im (dat.), ins (m. Acc.), ija (n. / f. Acc.)
themselves – to ~ = du sis misso
theological – *gudleis (adj. A)
theologist – 1. *gudleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *gudleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
theology – *gudleisei (f. N)
theory – *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O)
there – jainar
thereafter – afar þata
thief – hliftus (m. U)
think, to – 1. miton (II weak) 2. hugjan (I) (to suppose)
thirst – þaurstei (f. N)
thirtieth – *þrijatiguda (comp.)
this – 1. sa (m. Nom.), þata (n. Nom. / Acc.), so (f. Nom.), þis (m./n. Gen.), þizos (f. Gen.), þamma (m./n. Dat.), þizai (f. Dat.), þana (m. Acc.), þo (f. Acc.)
thorn – þaurnus (m. U)
thought – mitons (f. I)
thousand – þusundi (f. Jo)
thousandth – * þûsundida (comp.)
thread – *þredus (m. U)
threat – hwota (f. O)
threaten, to – gahwotjan (I weak)
threatening – hwota (f. O)
three – þreis (adj. A strong)
Thursday – *þunaris dags (m. A)
Tiberian – Tibairiadeis (m. U/I)
time – 1. mel (n. A) (moment) 2. sinþ (n. A) (always with dative, e.g. two times = twaim sinþam), at the same ~ = samana
title – ufarmeli (n. Ja)
tittle – striks (m. I)
Tiw – *Teiws (m. A)
to – du + dative
today – himma daga
toe – *tains (m. A)
together – samana
toilet – *gaggastaþs (m. I)
token – see sign
Tokyo – (neol.) Tokio (f. N)
tolerable – sutis (adj. I)
tomorrow – gistradagis
tongue – tuggo (f. N)
too – 1. jah (synonym of also) 2. ufar- (too much = ufarfilu)
tooth – tunþus (m. U)
touch – *atsnarpeins (f. I/O)
touch, to – 1. attekan (V red abl) (he/she touched = attaitok) 2. atsnarpjan (I i weak) 2. rahton (II weak) (symbolically)
towel – *þwahilo (f. N) (W. E.)
tower – kelikn (n. A)
tradition – anafilh (n. A)
traffic – *fara (f. O)
train – *tauhts (f. I)
transfiguration – *inmaideins (f. I/O)
transfigure, to – inmaidjan (I i weak)
translate, to – gaskeirjan (I)
translator – gaskeirja (m. N)
translation – gaskeireins (f. I/O)
transmitter – *sandja (f. O)
travel, to – wraton (II weak)
tread, to – trudan (IV abl)
treasure – huzd (n. A)
treat, to~ shamefully = ganaitjan (I weak)
trespass – missadeþs (f. I)
tribulation – agliþa (f. O)
trip – wratodus (m. U)
triumphant – hroþeigs (adj. A)
trouble – aglo (f. N)
trouble, to – usþriutan (II abl) + dat
true – sunjeins (adj. A)
trust, to – gatrauan (III weak)
truth – sunja (f. O)
Tuesday – *Teiwis dags (m. A)
tumult – 1. auhjodus (m. U) 2. drobna (m. N)
turkey (bird) – *pawahana (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
turtledove – hraiwadubo (f. N)
tutor – ragineis (m. Ja)
tweet – *tweit (n. A)
twelve – twalif (gen. = twalibe, dat. = twalibim)
twentieth – *twatiguda (comp.)
two – twai (adj. A strong)
ty – tigjus (m. U) (suffix for decades 20-60)
Tyr – *teiws (m. A)
unbelief – ungalaubeins (f. I/O)
unborn – unbaurans (part-perf)
uncertain – unwiss (adj)
uncircumcision – faurafilli (n. Ja) (it. For-skin)
uncleanness – 1. unhrainiþa (f. O) 2. unhrainei (f. N)
under – uf + dat
underground – *ufgrundus (m. U)
underpants – *ufbroks (f. Cons.)
understanding – 1. frodei (f. N) 2. fullaweis (adj. A)
underworld – *uffairhvus (m. U)
undisputed – unandsakans (part-perf)
ungodliness – afgudei (f. N)
unisex – gamains (adj. A)
United States – *Amairika (f. O)
unity – ainamundiþa (f. O)
university – 1. *mikila skaula (f. O) 2. *mikila skola (f. O)
unjust – inwindiþos (f. O) (the adjective unjust is formed with the genitive singular of inwindiþa, meaning unrighteousness)
unlearned – untals (adj. A)
unleavened – unbeistjoþs (past-perf)
unless – sware
unmarried – 1. *unqeniþs (part. perf.) (only used for men) 2. unliugaiþs (past-perf)
unmoveable – ungawagiþs (part-perf)
unprepared – unmanwus (adj. U)
unrighteousness – inwindiþa (f. O)
unsearchable – unfairlaistiþs (past-perf)
unspeakable – unqeþs (adj. I/Ja)
unthankful – launawargs (adj. A)
unwashen – unþwahans (past-perf)
uproar – drobna (m. N)
urinate, to – *meigan (I)
urine – *hland (n. A)
use, to – brukjan (I weak i) + gen
useful – bruks (adj. I)
username – (neol) *atgagganamo (n. N), see name for exceptions in the declension
vail – hulistr (n. A)
valley – dals (m. Noun)
valkyrie – *walakusjo (f. N)
value – wairþ (n. A)
value, to – wairþon (II weak)
Vandal – *wandals (m. A)
vanity – uswissi (n. Ja)
veal – *kalbamimz (noun)
veil – faurhah (n. A)
vengeance – fraweit (n. A), ~ is mine = mis fraweit leitaidau
very – 1. filu 2. abraba (stronger than filu)
vessel – kas (n. A)
victorious – hroþeigs (adj. A)
victory – sigis (n. A)
video – *film (n. A)
viking – *weikiggs (m. A)
vine – weinatriu (n. Wa)
vineyard – weinatriu (n. Wa)
virtue – godei (f. N)
visible – anasiuns (adj. I)
Visigoth – *Wistraguta (m. N) awake
Visigothic – *Wistragutisks (adj. A)
visitation – niuhseins (f. I/O)
vivid – *gaheis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
voice – stibna (f. O)
wade, to – *wadan (reconstructed by J.G. Quak)
wag, to – wiþon (II weak)
wagon – 1. *karrahago (f. N) (latinized Gothic word) 2. *karrs (m. A)
Wales – *Walhaland (n. A)
walhalla – *walahalla (f. O)
wall – baurgswaddjus (f. U) (literally: city-wall, for another kind of wall use waddjus (f. U) seperately)
war – *badus (m. U), second world ~ = anþar (adj. A strong) fairhvubadus (m. U)
warfare – drauhtinassus (m. U), to go on ~ = drauhtinon (II weak)
warmth – *warmei (f. N)
wary – *war (adj. A)
waste – fraqisteins (f. I/O)
watching – wokains (f. I)
water – wato (n. N), pl. Nom. = watna, pl. Gen. = *watne, pl. Dat. = watnam, pl. Acc. = watna, white- ~ / rapids = stainaha watna
wave – wegs (m. A)
way – 1. wigs (n. A) (way on a land), rough ~ = usdrusts (f. I) 2. haidus (m. U) (way to do something)
weak – unmahteigs (adj. A)
weapon – 1. *wepna (n. A) (plural) 2. *sarwa (m. N)
weather – *wiþr (n. A)
Wednesday – *wodanisdags (m. A)
week – wiko (f. N)
weekend – *wikaandeis (m. Ja)
weep, to – gretan (V abl red) (he/she wept = gaigrot)
weeping – grets (m. A)
weight – kaurei (f. N)
weighty – kaurus (adj. U)
well – waila
Welsh – 1. *walhiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Walhisks (adj. A)
Welshman – *walhs (m. A)
werewolf – *wairawulfs (m. A)
west – 1. *wistrs (m. A) 2. wistra- (adj.), from the ~ = *wistana, in the ~ = *wistar, to the ~ = *wistar
westwards – *wistar
wet – *nats (adj. A)
what – 1. (int) hva 2. (relative pronoun) see which
wheat – hvaiteis (m. Ja)
wheel – 1. *raþ (n. A) (dat. Sing. raþa) 2. *hwi(h)l (n. A)
when – 1. (int.) hvan 2. þan (can never be used in initial position) 3. þanuh
where – 1. (int.) hvar 2. þarei (in phrases which aren’t questions, in the sense of: the place where = staþs, þarei)
whether – ei
while – 1. hveila (f. O) 2. miþþanei (With contrast, used as in: I was here, while he was there. Ik was her, miþþanei is was jainar.)
whip – *laittug
white – hveits (adj. A)
white, to – hveitjan (I i weak)
who – 1. (int.) (m. Nom.) Hvas, (f. Nom.) Hvo 2. (Who as relative pronoun, the person who ..) (m. Nom.) Saei, (n. Nom.) þatei, (f. Nom.) soei/sei (sei is used more frequently then soei)
wholly – allandjo (indecl)
whore – kalkjo (f. N)
why – 1. (interr) duhve 2. (interr) hva þatei 3. (confirmative), that’s why = in þis, in þizei
wickedness – unselei (f. N)
wide – braiþs (adj.)
widow – widuwo (f. N)
width – braidei (f. N)
wilderness – auþida (f. O)
wildly – wilþiba
will – wilja (m. N)
willingly – us lustum
wind – winds (m. A)
window – augadauro (n. N)
wine – wein (n. A), berry ~ = basjawein (n. A), given to ~ = weinnas
wineservant – *weinaskalks (m. A)
wing – *fiþrahama (m. N)
winter – wintrus (m. U)
wipe, to~ out = afswairban (III)
wisdom – 1. handugei (f. N) 2. frodei (f. N)
wise – 1. handugs (adj. A) 2. froþs (adj. A)
wisely – frodaba
witch – *haljaruna (f. O)
witchcraft – lubjaleisei (f. N)
with – miþ + dat
withdraw, to – ufsliupan (II abl)
without – 1. inuh + acc 2. utana + gen (from the outside)
withstand, to – andstandan (VI)
witness – 1. weitwoþs (m. Root)
wizard – *lubjaleis (m. A)
woad – *wai(z)da (f. O)
Wodan – *Wodans (m. A)
woe – O woe = wai
wolf – wulfs (m. A)
woman – qino (f. N)
womb – 1. qiþus (m. U) 2. kilþei (f. N) (occurs only once)
wood – triu (n. Wa)
wooden – *triweins (adj. A)
woods – *widus (m. U)
word – waurd (n. A)
work – waurstw (n. A)
worker – gawaurstwa (m. N)
working – waurstwei (f. N) (not labour by men but doing something)
world – 1. fairhvus (m. U) 2. midjungards (m. I) (the world where people live)
worm – maþa (m. N)
wormhole – *waurmaþairko (f. N)
worse – 1. wairsiza (comp.) 2. wairs
worship, to – blotan (V red)
worshipper – 1. *blostreis (m. Ja), ~ of God = gudblostreis (m. Ja) 2. *blostreisa (f. O)
worshipping – 1. blotinassus (m. U) 2. skalkinassus (m. U)
wrap, to – biwindan (III abl)
wrath – 1. þwairhei (f. N) 2. moþs (m. A)
write, to – meljan (I) + dat
writer – 1. bokareis (m. Ja) 2. *bokari (f. Jo)
yellow – 1. *gilws (adj. Wa) 2. *gulws (adj. Wa)
yoke – juk (n. A)
younger – minniza (Comp.), only in: The elder serves the ~ = sa maiza skalkinoþ þamma minizin
your – 1. (sing) (both informal and formal) þeins (posessive pronoun, always declined strongly) 2. (dual) iggqar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly) 3. (plural) izwar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly)
youth – junda (f. O) (someones youth)
yule – *jiul (n. A)
zeal – aljan (n. A)
zeitgeist – *aldiwists (f. I)
zionism – *Sionismus (m. U)
zionist – *Sionistus (m. U)

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Thanks to Ulfowaldo for providing the Spanish translation.


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