English-Gothic dictionary

English to Gothic dictionary

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Many thanks to Ulfovaldo for providing the Spanish translation.

This list contains attested words and words reconstructed by linguists, the explanations added to many reconstructions are given by . This dictionary is especially written for writing in Gothic, therefore stems are included.​ This dictionary currently contains 2552 English lemmas.

Abbreviations

acc. = accusative
adv. = adverb
dat. = dative
int. = interrogative (questions)
voc. = vocative
W.E. = reconstructed by Wolfram Euler
n. = noun
v. = verb
+ = neologism (these are words which didn’t exist when the Goths lived.)
* = reconstruction
Greek = direct translation of original Greek, highly unlikely genuine Gothic

 

Initial position means the first place in a phrase, in “The man is here.”, ‘the’ is in the initial position.

Just like in normal dictionaries, ~ means a repetition of the main word. So if you look up Gothic and find “2. *~ language”, the ~ means Gothic.

Here are some tips when using Gothic:

All -us nouns are masculine, except for faihu (n.) (Property) and reconstructed *alu (n.) (Beer) and handus (f.) (Hand), kinnus (f.) (Cheek), baurgswaddjus (f.) (Wall) and asiluqairnus (f.) (Millstone).

The declensions of the nouns are:

In order of: nom. sing, gen. sing, dat. sing, acc. sing, voc. sing, nom. plur., gen. plur., dat. plur., acc. plur., voc. plur.

m. A = -s, -is, -a, -, -, -os, -e, -am, -ans, -os
n. A = -, -is, -a, -, -, -a, -e, -am, -a, -a
f. O = -a, -os, -ai, -a, -os, -o, -om, -os, -os

When saying for instance “It is beautiful”, you use the n. Declension (Skaun ist).

When more translations are available, the most prevalent is given first.

a – (English article, is untranslated)
abandoned – ainakls (adj. A)
abbreviate, to (v.) – gamaurgjan (I weak i)
abbreviation (n.) – *maurgeins (f. I/O)
ability (n.) – mahts (f. I)
able – mahteigs (adj. A)
abode (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural)
abolish, to (v.) – blauþjan (I weak i)
abolished, to be – gataurnan (IV weak)
abolishment (n.) – *blauþeins (f. I/O)
abominable (adj.) – andasets (adj. I)
abound, to – ufarassau haban (III weak)
about – 1. bi + acc (about him) 2. swe (about two miles)
above – ufaro
absolve, to (v.) – letan (VII strong)
absent (adj.) – afhaimeis (adj. Ja) (far from home)
abstinence – gahobains (f. I)
abundance (n.) – 1. ufarassus (m. U) 2. ufarfullei (f. N) 3. digrei (f. N)
abuse (n.) – *anamahts (f. I)
abuse, to (v.) – anamahtjan (I)
abuser (n.) – *anamahtjands (m. Cons.)
abyss (n.) – afgrundiþa (f. O)
accept, to (v.) – andsitan (V abl) (to accept an abstract concept, God accepteth no man’s person = guþ mans andwairþi ni andsitiþ)
acceptation (n.) – andanumts (f. I)
accepted (adj.) – andanems (adj. I)
access (n.) – atgagg (n. A)
according – ~ to = afar + dative
account (n.) – 1. *rahneins (f. I/O) (online) 2. raþjo (f. N)
accurate (adj.) – *glaggws (adj. U)
accurately (adv.) – glaggwuba
accusation (n.) – 1. fairina (f. O) 2. wrohs (f. I)
accusative (n.) – *akkusateibus (m. U)
accuse, to (v.) – wrohjan (I weak i)
accustomed (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
Achaea (n.) – Akajus (gen. pl. = Akaïje)
acknowledge, to (v.) – andhaitan (red I. + dat)
acknowledgement (n.) – *andhait (n. A)
across (adv.) – *ufar + dat.
act (n.) – gadeþs (f. I)
action (n.) – *aktsjo (f. N) (taken from Latin “actionem (nominative actio)” reconstruction based on the word kawtsjo)
actor (n.) – 1. *gadeþja (m. N) (someone who acts, does something) 2. *fairweitlands (m. Nd)/*fairweitlandi (f. Jo) (an actor in a play, movie or series)
actually (adv.) – aþþan (beginning of phrase) (2 Cor. 11: in fact (synonym of actually), in every way we have made this evident to you in all things. – aþþan in allamma gabairhtidai in allaim du izwis.)
activity (n.) – mahts (f. I) du taujan (literally: capacity to act)
adapted (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
add, to (v.) – anaaukan (II red) + acc. (add up to)
adjure, to (v.) – biswaran (VI abl)
adjurer (n.) – *biswarands (m. Nd)/*biswarandi (f. Jo)
admired, to be – sildaleiknan (IV weak)
admit, to (v.) – andhaitan (red. 1) (Titus 1:16 They profess (admit) that they know God – guþ andhaitand kunnan)
admonish, to (v.) – talzjan (I weak i)
adoptation (n.) – sibja (f. Jo)
adoption (n.) – frastisibja (f. Jo)
adorn, to – fetjan (I i weak)
adorner (n.) – 1. *fetja (m. N)/*fetjo (f. N) 2. *fetjands (m. Nd)/*fetjandi (f. Jo)
adult (n.) – uswahsans (pret-pres)
adulterer (n.) – hors (m. A)
adulteress (n.) – *horo (f. N)
adultery (n.) – horinassus (m. U) to commit ~ = horinon (II weak)
advance (n.) – framgahts (f. I)
advantage (n.) – bota (f. O)
advent (n.) – qums (m. A)
adversary (n.) – 1. andastaua (m. N) (in court) 2. andastaþjis (m. Ja)
advertisement (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advertising (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advice (n.) – ragin (n. A)
advice, to (v.) – garaginon (II weak) + dat
advicer (n.) – *garaginonds (m. N)/*garaginondi (f. Jo)
affection (n.) – 1. winna (f. O) 2. winno (f. N)
affliction (n.) – wunns (f. I)
afraid (adj.) – faurhts (adj. A)
afraid, to be (v.) – faurhtjan (I weak i)
after (adv.) – afar + dat/acc (in locative it’s the dative, temporal form uses either dative or accusative)
again (adv.) – aftra
against (adv.) – 1. wiþra + acc 2. over~ = wiþrawairþs (adj. A)
aged (adj.) – 1. sineigs (adj. A) (as in old) 2.  framaldrs (adj. A) (well stricken in years.)
aggressiveness (n.) – þrasabalþei (f. N)
ago (adv.) – faur + dat.
agree, to (v.) – waila hugjan (I weak) + dat (person/thing agreed with is in dative), sijais waila hugjands andastauin þeinamma = agree with thine adversary
agreeing (adj.)~ together = samaleiks (adj. A)
agreement (n.) – samaqiss (f. I)
aim (n.) – mundrei (f. N)
air (n.) – luftus (m. U)
airplane (n.) – *luftuskip (n. A)
alarm (n.) – *duwepnam (literally: to the weapons; indeclinable)
ale (n.) – *alu (n. U)
ale-bank (n.) – *alubanks (m. I)
alienated – framaþeis (adj. Ja) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)
alienated, to be – framaþjan (I weak i) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)
alike (adj.) – samaleiks (adj. A)
alive (adj.) – qius (adj. A)
alm (n.) – armaio (f. N)
almighty (n.) – allwaldands (m. Nd)
all (adj.) – alls (adj. A strong); by all ~ = in allaim stadim
; not at ~ = ni allis
allegoric (adj.) – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
allegorical (adj.) – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
alone (adj.) – ains (adj. strong)
along (adv.) – and + acc
allow, to (v.) – andletan (red. abl.)
alphabet (n.) – 1. *bokatewa (f. O) 2. *azgabairka (f. O) (lit. Ash-birch, the first two letters of the Gothic alphabet, but bokatewa should be used for other alphabets)
alphabetical (adj.) – *bokateweis (adj. Ja)
always (adv.) – sinteino
already (adv.) – ju
altar (n.) – hunslastaþs (m. I)
although (adv.) – 1. iþ (holding to a form of godliness, although they have denied its power = habandans hiwi gagudeins, iþ maht izos inwidandans) 2. aþþan jabai (So although I wrote to you = aþþan jabai melida)
altruism (n.) – *broþrulubo (f. N)
altruist (n.) – 1. *broþrulubja (m. N) 2. *broþrulubjo (f. N)
amazed, to be (v.) – afslauþnan (IV)
amazement (n.) – usfilmei (f. N), ~n dissitan = to be amazed
amber (n.) – 1. *glas (n. A) 2. *gles (n. A)
amber route (n.) – 1. *glasawigs (m. A) 2. *glesawigs (m. A)
amen – amen
American (adj.) – *Amairikisks (adj. A)
American (n.) – *Amairikus (m. U/I)
anarchism (n.) – *anarxismus (m. U)
anarchist (n.) – *anarxistus (m. U)
anarchistic (adj.) – *anarxists (adj. A)
answer (n.) – andahafts (f. I)
and (conj.) – 1. jah 2. -uh (Can only be used after verbs and names)
angel (n.) – aggilus (m. U/I)
anger (n.) – moþs (m. A)
angle (n.) – *skina (f. O)
angry (adj.) – ~ on = modags (adj. A) + dat, to be ~ on = hatizon (II weak) + dat
anguish (n.) – aggwiþa (f. O)
ankle (n.) – 1. *ank(u)lo (f. N)
anoint, to (v.) – gasmeitan (abl I)
anointer (n.) – *gasmeitands (m. Nd)/*gasmeitandi (f. Jo)
anonymous (adj.) – *unnamniþs (past. part. as adj.)
another (adj.) – anþar (adj. A) (Only declined strongly)
answer (n.) – 1. andahafts (f. I) 2. andawaurdi (n. Ja)
answer, to (v.) – 1. andhafjan (VI) + dat
ant (n.) – *miurjo (f. N)
Antiochia (n.) – Antiaukia (f. Noun, declined as O)
anthropological (adj.) – +mannaleis (adj. A)
anthropologist (n.) – 1. +mannaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. +mannaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
anthropology (n.) – +mannaleisei (f. N)
any – 1. ~ man = mannahun (first part declined as manna)
anyone – hwas (declined like sa)
anybody (pronoun) – hwas (declined like sa)
anything – hwa (declined like þata)
anymore (adv.)not ~ = ni þanaseiþs
ape (n.) – *apa (m. N)
apostle (n.) – apaustaulus (m. U/I)
apostleship (n.) – apaustaulei (f. I)
apparel (n.) – gafeteins (f. I/O)
appearing (n.) – gabairhteins (f. I/O)
appetizer (n.) – *tappa (f. O)
appoint, to (v.) – raidjan (I weak i)
appointer (n.) – *garaidja (m. N)/*garaidjo (f. N)
approach, to (v.) – anaqiman (IV)
Arabia (n.) – Arabia (f. Undeclined)
archaeologist (n.) – *arkaiaulaugist (m. A)
archangel (n.) – arkaggilus (m. U/I)
arena (n.) – *krings (m. A) (Orel gives Gepidic *krings ‘arena’ <Proto-Germanic *krengaz, was most likely also used in Gothic like this)
arkenstone (n.) – *airknastains (m. A)
armour (n.) – sarwa (n. Wa)
army (n.) – harjis (m. Ja), highest division of Visigothic ~ in Hispania = *þiufa (f. O)
aroma (n.) – *aroma (pl. *aromata) (n. A) (W.E.)
arranged (adj.) – garaiþs (adj. A)
arranger (n.) – *garaidja (m. N)/*garaidjo (f. N)
arrival (n.) – *atfareins (f. I/O)
arrive, to (v.) – atfarjan (I j weak) (arrive in a land)
arrow (n.) – arhwazna (f. O)
art (n.) – skaun (r. Ja) waurstw (n. A), skaun waurstw
artificial (adj.) – 1. *handuwaurhts (past perf.) 2. *mannawaurhts (past perf.)
artemisia (n.) – *artaimisja (f. O)
ash (n.) – azgo (f. N)
ashamed (adj.) – 1. to be ~ = gaaiwiskon (II weak) 2. skaman (III weak) + gen
Asia (n.) – Asia (f. O)
ask, to (v.) – fraihnan (V abl)
asker (n.) – *fraihnands (m. Nd)/*fraihnandi (f. Jo)
asleep (v.) – to fall ~ = anaslepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = anasaizlep)
asp (n.) – 1. *asps (f. I) 2. *aspo (f. N)
aspersion (n.) – ufarranneins (f. I/O)
ass (n.) – assilus (m. U) (synonyme of donkey)
assembly (n.) – gaqumþs (f. I)
assumption (n.) – anaminds (f. I)
astonished, to be (v.) – usgeisnan (IV weak)
astrobiological (v.) – *stairnalibainileis (adj. A)
astrobiologist (n.) – 1. *stairnalibainileis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnalibainileisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astrobiology (n.) – *stairnalibainileisei (f. N)
astrological (adj.) – *stairnaleis (adj. A)
astrologist (n.) – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astrology (n.) – *stairnaleisei (f. N)
astronomer (n.) – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astronomical (adj.) – *stairnaleis (adj. A)
astronomically (adv.) – *stairnaleisaba
astronomy (n.) – *stairnaleisei (f. N)
Athens (n.) – Aþeineis (m. U/I) (lit. Athenians, but the plural form of a people was used to refer to a place too.)
attack, to (v.) – gasokjan miþ *wepnam (m. A)
attacker (n.) – tilarīds (m. A) (from Gothic inscription on spearhead of Kowel, West Ukraine)
attendant (n.) – *sagja (m. N) [Wrede 1891: 110]
attention (n.) – *gáums (m. A)
attract, to (v.) – atþinsan (III)
attracter (n.) – *atþinsands (m. Nd)
attractor (n.) – *atþinsands (m. Nd)
auger (n.) – *nabagais (m. A)
aunt (n.) – 1. *faþa (f. O) / *faþo (f. N) (father’s sister) 2. *modrujo (f. N) (mother’s sister) (Reconstructed by Nelson Goering)
austere – hardus (adj. U)
Austria (n.) – *australand (n. A)
author (n.) – bokareis (m. Ja)
authority (n.) – waldufni (n. Ja), by what ~ = in hwamma waldufnje
avenger (n.) – *fraweitands (m. Nd)
avidity (n.) – aljan (n. A)
await, to (v.) – beidan (I)
awake, to (v.) – gawaknan (IV weak) 2. usskarjan (I weak j) (awake from something bad, power from evil)
aware, to be (v.) – miþwitan (pret-pres) (for I know nothing by myself = nih waiht auk mis silbin miþwait)
axe (n.) – aqizi (f. Jo)
Babylonia (n.) – *Babwlaun
backwards (adv.) – afta
bag (n.) – balgs (m. I)
Balder (n.) (myth.) – *baldrs (m. A)
ball (n.) – *balla (m. N) The cognates are:
ON. böllr (OSw. baller) < *balluz
OHG. ballo, pallo < *ballō (masc. n-stem)
OHG. ballâ, pallâ < *ballōn (fem. n-stem)
Kroonen (2013: 50) gives the masculine n-stem as more basic; the u-stem form is likely an analogical innovation based on the original acc. pl. form *balluns, and so a Gothic form *’balla’ (masc. n-stem) would seem to be preferable.

balloon (n.) – +bauljo (f. N)
balsam (n.) – balsan (n. A)
ban, to (v.) – uswairpan (III abl)
banish, to (v.) – uswairpan (III abl)
bank (n.) – skattjans (m. N) (plural of skattja (moneychanger) means a bank)
banker (n.) – 1. *skattja (m. N) 2. *skattjo (f. N)
banquet (n.) – dauhts (f. I)
baptism (n.) – daupei (f. N)
baptist (n.) – daupjands (m. Nd)
baptize, to (v.) – daupjan (I weak i)
bar (n.) – ans (m. A)
barbarian (n.) – barbarus (m. U/I)
barely (adv.) – halisaiw
barley (n.) – barizeins (adj. A), ~ loaf = barizeins hlaifs (m. A) cooked ~ = *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
barn (n.) – bansts (m. I)
barrel (n.) – *barils (m. A)
barren (n.) – stairo (f. N)
basket (n.) – tainjo (f. N)
battle (n.) – waihjo (f. N)
beach (n.) – staþ (n. A) / staþs (m. A)
beak (n.) – *nabi (n. Ja)
beam (n.) – ans (m. A)
bean (n.) – *bauna (f. O)
bear (n.) – *baira (m. N)
bear, to (v.) – bairan (IV)
beat, to (v.) – 1. stautan (II red) 2. bliggwan (III abl) 3. *biutan (II)
beautiful (adj.) – skauns (adj. I/Ja)
beautifully (adv.) – *skauniba
because – 1. duþe 2. unte (Only in initial position.) 3. ~ of = in + gen
bed (n.) – ligrs (m. A)
bedroom (n.) – (neol) badiheþjo (f. N) / (neol) slepaheþjo (f. N)
bee (n.) – *biwa (f. Wo)
beer (n.) – *alu (n. U), barley ~ = barizalu (n. U), black ~ = swartalu (n. U), wheat ~ = hwaitjalu (n. U), white ~ = hweitalu (n. U)
before (adv.) – 1. faurþis 2. faurþizei + subjunctive (only used after a comma)
beg, to (v.) – bidjan (V)
beggar (n.) – bidagwa (m. N)
begin, to (v.) – anastodjan (I weak i)
beginning (n.) – anastodeins (f. I)
behave, to (v.) – ~ badly = aiwiskon (II weak)
behaviour (n.) – usmet (n. A)
behind (adv.) – 1. aftaro (adv.) (used when referring to a verb with behind) 2. aftana (adv.) (used when referring to a verb with behind including movement)
behold – sai
Belarus – +Hweitarusaland (n. A)
Belarussian – 1. +Hweitarus (m. A) (citizen) 2. +Hweitarusisks (adj. A)
Belgian – 1. *Bailgus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Bailgisks (adj. A)
Belgium – *Bailgaland (n. A)
Belgrade – +hweitabaurgs (f. Cons)
belief – galaubeins (f. I/O)
believe, to (v.) – galaubjan (I weak i) + dat, ~ in = galaubjan du + dat
bench – *banks (m. I) (masc. i-stem; from PG *bankiz)
bend, to (v.) – *lutan (II strong) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
benefit – wailadeþs (f. I) (good deed)
Beroia – Bairauja (f. Noun, declined as O)
berry – basi (n. Ja)
beseech, to (v.) – bidjan (V abl)
beset, to (v.) – bisatjan (I weak j)
Bethlehem – Beþlaihaim (nom. Beþlaihaim gen. Beþlaihaimis)
betray, to (v.) – fralewjan (I weak)
better – 1. batiza (comp.) 2. usiza (comp.) (Preferable)
between – miþ + dat, ~ the two borders = miþ tweihnaim markom
bewail, to (v.) – flokan (V red)
bewitch, to (v.) – afhugjan (I weak)
bicycle – 1. *raþjo (f. Jo) (lit. Wheeler) 2. *bainjo (f. Jo) (lit. Legger) 3. *fotjo (f. Jo) (lit. Footer) 4. *eisarnamarhs (m. A) (lit. Iron-horse)
big – mikils (adj. A)
bilingual (adj.) – *tweirazds (m./f. adj. A)
binary – 1. *tweihnai (adj. A) (plural, meaning both) (W.E.) 2. *twafalþs (adj. A) (W.E.)
biological – *libainileis (adj. A)
biologist – 1. +libainileis (m. A) (declined like adjective) 2. +libainileisa (f. O) (declined like adjective)
biology – +libainileisei (f. N)
birch – *bairka (f. O)
bird – fugls (m. A)
birdseed (n.) – 1. *fuglaseþs (m. I) 2. *fuglafraiw (n. A)
birth – gabaurþs (f. I)
bisexual – 1. *alalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 2. *twalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 3. *alalustjo (f. N) (bisexual woman) 4. *twalustjo (bisexual woman)
bishop – aipiskaupus (m. U), office of a ~ = aipiskaupei
bitch – 1. *hundi (f. Jo) 2. *hundjo (f. N) 3. *bikjo (f. On) 4. *tauho (f. N)
bitcoin – (neol) *bitkaujn (n. A)
bite, to (v.) – beitan (I abl)
bitter – baitrs (adj. A)
bitterness – baitrei (f. N)
black – swarts (adj. A)
blackbird – *amslo (f. N)
blackjack (n.) – swarts Iakobus (m. U)
blame, to (v.) – 1. anawammjan (I i weak) 2. andbeitan (I abl) 3. fairinon (II weak)
blameless – ungafairinoþs (past-perf)
blank – *bas (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
blasphemy – 1. wajamerei (f. N) 2. wajamereins (f. I/O)
blend, to (v.) – blandan (III red)
bless, to (v.) – þiuþjan (I i weak) + acc.
blessed – audags (adj. A)
blessedness – audagei (f. N)
blessing – þiuþeins (f. I/O)
blind – blinds (adj. A)
blinded, to be – afdaubnan (IV weak) (ak afdaubnodedun fraþja ize = but their minds were blinded)
block, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (as in to block the way)
blog – *blaug (n. A)
blogger – 1. *blaugja (m. N) (male blogger) 2. *blaugjo (f. N) (female blogger)
blow, to – waian (red abl)
blue – 1. *blews (adj. A) 2. *blaus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
blueberry (n.) – *blewabasi (n. Ja)
Bluetooth (n.) – 1. *blewatunþus (m. U) 2. *blutuþ (n. A) (as a loanword from English)
boar – *bais (m. A)
board (n.) – baurd (n. A)
boast, to – hwopan (V red)
boaster – bihaitja (m. N)
boasting – hwoftuli (f. Jo)
bodily – leikeins (adj. A)
body – leik (n. A)
bold, to be – anananþjan (I i weak)
boldness – balþei (f. N)
bond – kunawida (f. O)
bondage (n.) – þiwadw (noun, acc. form), to bring into ~ = gaþiwan (III weak)
bordel – 1. kalkjarazn (n. A) 2. *kalkjahus (n. A)
border – marka (f. O)
border, to – gamarkon (II weak)
bough *bogus (m. U) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
boundary – marka (f. O)
born, to be – wairþan (III)
borrow, to – leihvan (I abl)
bosom – barms (m. I)
bound (adj.)we are ~ to = skulum (Thess II 1:3 We are bound to thank God always for you – awiliudon skulum guda sinteino in izwara)
bow – *buga (m. N)
bow, to – biugan (II abl)
box – arka (f. O)
boy (n.) – magus (m. U)
branch (n.) – 1. asts (m. A) 2. tains (m. A)
bread (n.) – hlaifs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms), light ~ = hwaitahlaifs (m. A), brown ~ = swartahlaifs (m. A), wheat ~ = hwaitjahlaifs (m. A)
break, to (v.) – dishniupan (II abl)- he brake the bands = dishniupands þos bandjos, ~ free/ forth / loose = tarmjan (I weak i)
breast (n.) – brusts (f. Cons.)
breastplate (n.) – brunjo (f. N)
breath (n.) – *aþana (m. N)
brew, to (v.) – *briggwan (III strong)
bridegroom (n.) – bruþfaþs (m. I)
bridge (n.) – 1. *bruddi (f. Ja) 2. *bruwja (f. Ja)
bring, to (v.) – attiuhan (II abl) (to bring a person)
broad (adj.) – rums (adj.)
brook (n.) – rinno (f. N)
brother (n.) – broþar (m. R), ~s = broþrahans (m. N)
brotherly love (n.) – broþrulubo (f. N)
brown (adj.) – *bruns (adj. A) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
bruise, to (v.) – gamalwjan (I weak)
bubble (n.) – *bauljo (f. N)
build, to (v.) – timrjan (I j weak) ~ upon = anatimrjan (I weak i)
building (n.) – gatimrjo (f. N)
Bulgaria – *Bulgarja (f. O)
Bulgarian – 1. *Bulgarus (m. U/I) 2. *Bulgariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Bulgarisks (adj. A)
burden – kauriþa (f. O)
burial – gafilh (n. A), day of burying = dags (m. A) gafilhis
burn, to – intundnan (IV weak), tundnan (IV weak) (intrans. perf., used as in to burn oneself, not to burn something or someone else, as in: I am burning = ik intundna, ik im intundnands)
burnt-offering (n.) – ala-brunsts (f. I)
bury, to – ganawistron (II weak) (perf.)
bus – 1. *aumnibus (m. A/m. U) 2. *wigaskip (n. A)
bush – bramble ~ = aihwatundi (f. Jo)
bushel – mela (m. N)
business – to do ~ = kaupon (II weak)
butcher – skilja (m. N)
butter – 1. *ankwa (m. N) 2. *smairw (n. A) 3. *butwr (n. A) 4. *butwraun (loan from Greek) *ankwa (masc. n-stem), cf. OHG ancho, MHG anke, ‘butter’. While found only in the southern area of West Germanic, Proto-Germanic *ankwan ‘butter’ was an inherited IE word, cf.the cognates Latin unguen ‘fat grease’, Old Irish imb ‘butter’, and so it is not impossible that Gothic, which is often more conservative than the other early Germanic languages, may have preserved this word.
butterfly – 1. *feifalþra (f. O) 2. *feifaldra (f. O)
button – *haubidilo (n. N) (lit. little head) Buttons were unknown in the ancient world, not becoming a part of clothing until the Middle Ages. Therefore one could use as a suggestion *haubidilo’ (‘little head’), cf. barnilo (diminutive of barn), neut. n-stem.buy, to – bugjan (I weak j)
byte – *bajt (n. A)
cabbage – *kauls (m. A)
cacao – *kakaw (n. A)
cage (n.) – karkara (f. O)
cake – *koka (f. O)
calf – 1. stiur (m. A) 2. kalbo (f. N) (female calf which is under one years old and which hasn’t got calves yet)
call, to – atlaþon (II weak)
calling (n.) – laþons (f. I)
calm – wis (n. A) (of water)
cam (n.) – *kam (n. A)
camel – ulbandus (m. U)
camera (n.) – *kamaira (obskura) (f. O)
camp – bibaurgeins (f. I/O)
can, to – magan (pret-pres)
cancer (n.) – gund (n. A)
candlestick (n.) – lukarnastaþa (m. N)
capital city (n.) – *haubidabaurgs (f. Cons)
captivity (n.) – hunþs (m. A)
car (n.) – 1. raida (f. O) (based on Gothic alphabet letter): 2. *karrs (m. A); One can suggest *karrs: Ammianus Marcellinus (31,7.7 and 12.11) gives a Latinized Gothic word ‘carrago’ = *Karrahago (fem. n-stem), seemingly ‘wagon-hedge’, in his description of the westward migration of Goths in the face of Hunnic invasion, wherein Fritigern’s Tervingi employed a fortified circle of wagons to protect themselves against surprise attacks and long-range missiles, hence the ‘hedge’. It played a conspicuous role in the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD. The word appears to be a compound of a stem *karra- ‘wagon, cart’ and hago ‘haw’. Thus a Gothic *’karrs’ (masc. a-stem) would be recommended, cf. German ‘Wagen’ = ‘wagon, car’.
carbon (n.) – *kul (n. A)
card (n.) – *karta (f. O)
cardboard (n.) – *kartabaurd (n. A)
cardiological – *hairtaleis (adj. A)
cardiologist (n.) – 1. *hairtaleis (m. A) (declined as adjective) 2. *hairtaleisa (f. O) (declined as adjective)
cardiology (n.) – *hairtaleisei (f. N)
care (n.) – 1. kara (f. O), he ~s about .. = .. (gen) imma kara ist, to take ~ of = gakaron (II weak) (perf.), to ~ for = karon (II weak) 2. saurga (f. O)
carefully – us gaþagkja
carp (n.) – *karpa (f. O)
carpenter (n.) – timrja (m. N)
carry, to – bairan (IV), ~ away = miþgatiuhan (II abl)
cast, to – ~ down = afdrausjan (I i weak), ~ away = afskiuban (II abl) + dative, ~ off = afskiuban (II abl) + dat
casualness (n.) – latei (f. N)
catalogue – *katalaugus (m. U)
catamite – *magulus (m. U)
cathedral – *aipiskaupaus aikklesjo (f. N) 2. *kaþaidral (n. A) Medieval Latin ‘cathedrâlis’ (an adj. = ‘of or pertaining to a Bishop’s seat,’ from cathedra ‘seat’). To Gothicize this, one would get *’kat(h)aidral’ (neut. a-stem). Alternatively one can use ‘Aipiskaupaus aikklesjo’ (‘Bishop’s church’, which is precisely what a cathedral is)
Catholic – *allagalaufs (adj. A) (Based on Old English “eallgeleaflic”)
Catholicism – *allagalaubeins (f. I/O)
cauldron – *hwair
cause (n.)for this ~ = duþþe
cause, to(v.) – taujan (I weak j) (to cause someone, something to: Matt 5:32 .. Whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery – hvazuh saei afletiþ qen seina, inuh fairina kalkinassaus, taujiþ þo horinon)
cautious – *war (adj. A)
cautiously – *waraba
cease, to – sweiban (i abl) , not ~ = ni hweilan (III weak)
celestial body – tuggl (n. A)
cell – 1. *kailla (f. N) 2. heþjo (f. N) For scientific terms, one can use the Graeco-Latin words: thus ‘cell’ = *kailla (fem. a-stem), ‘electronics’ = *elaiktraunika (neut. a-stem pl.), ‘quantum-mechanics’ = *kwantum-maikanika (neut. a-stem pl.). Since Classical Latin ‘cella’, from which the modern ‘cell’ derives, meant simply ‘room’ (esp. a ‘storeroom’), one might also use here ‘hethjo’ (‘room’) for ‘cell.’
Celt – *Kailts (m. A) (W.E.)
Celtic – *Kailtisks (adj. A)
centurion – hundafaþs (m. I)
century – *jerahund (m. A)
certain – sums (adj. A)
chaff – ahana (f. O)
chair – sitls (m. A)
chamber – heþjo (f. N)
change – inmaideins (f. I/O)
change, to – 1. inmaidjan (I i weak) 2. ~ into = ingaleikon (II weak)
charitably (adv.) – bi friaþwai
charity (n.) – frijaþwa (f. Wo)
cheek – kinnus (f. U)
cheerfulness – hlasei (f. N)
cheese – 1. *justs (m. A) 2. *kaseis (m. Ja)
chicken – hana (m. N)
child – barn (n. A)
childhood – barniski (n. Ja)
childish – barnisks (adj. A)
chiliarch – *þiufaþs (m. I) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigotorum II, 1,16 and 1,27)
chocolate – *kakawamats (m. A) One could use *kakaw (neut. a-stem). For ‘chocolate’ *kakawamats (lit. ‘cacao-food’).
Christ – Xristus (m. U)
christmas – weiha (adj. A) nahts (f. Cons.), weiha nahts
chromosome – *xromasoma (n. A) (nom. Pl. *xromasomata) (W.E.)
chupacabra – 1. *gaitisugja (m. N) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson) 2. *gaitisugjo (f. N) (female chupacabra)
church – aikklesjo (f. N)
cigarette – *sigaraita (f. O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
Cilicia (n.) – Kileikia (gen. Kileikiais)
cinnabar (n.) – *kinnubards (m. A) [Lehmann 1986:218]
cinder – azgo (f. N)
cinema – 1. *filmarazn (n. A) 2. *filmahus (n. A)
circle – *kriggs (m. A)
circumcise, to – bimaitan (I red)
circumcision – bimaita (f. O)
circumspect (adj.) – andaþahts (adj. A)
citizen – baurgja (m. N)
citizenship – kawtsjo (f. N)
clamour – hrops (m. A)
clay – þâho (f. N)
cleansing – gahraineins (f. I/O)
clear – skeirs (adj. I) (as in clearly understanding)
clearly – *skeiriba (adv) (as in clearly understanding)
clever (adj.) – handugs (adj. A)
cleverness (n.) – handugei (f. N)
climb, to~ up into = ussteigan (I abl)
cloak – inilo (f. N)
clock – *horaulaugi (n. Ja) (based on the word for a time-keeping device in Latin, hōrologium, from the Greek word hōrológion)
cloke – hakuls (m. Noun)
close – nehwa (near) + dat
close, to~ a book = falþan (III red) bokos (f. O)
closer – nehwis
closet – heþjo (f. N)
clothe, to – gawasjan sik (I weak)
cloud – milhma (m. N)
coal – hauri (n. Ja), glowing ~ = *brasa
coast (n.) – *stranda (f. O)
coat – paida (f. O)
cock – hana (m. N) (male hen)
cockatoo (n.) – *kakatwa (f. Wo) (direct from Malay kakaktua)
coffee – *kahwa (f. O) (W. E.)
coin – skatts (m. A)
cold – kalþs (adj. A)
collect, to (v.) – huzdjan (I i weak)
collection (n.) – huzd (n. A)
collectively – alakjo
colony – niujaland (n. A) (W.E.)
colour, to – *faihjan (I weak i)
colouring – *faiheins (f. I/O)
colt – fula (m. N)
comb – *kambs (m. A)
comb, to – *kambjan (ei) (weak ei-verb; from PG *kambijana(n), cf. OE ‘cemban’, ON ‘kemba’, OS ‘kembian’)
come, to – qiman (IV abl)
coming – qums (m. I)
comfort – gaþrafstei (f. I/O)
comfort, to – 1. anaþrafstjan (I weak) 2. gaþlaihan (I red)
comforter – parakletus (m. U) (Greek)
comfortless – widuwairna (m. N)
command, to – anabiudan (II abl)
commanderthe ~ of the highest division of the Visigothic army (þiufa) = *þiufaþs (m. I)
commandmend – anabusns (f. I)
comment – *waurd (n. A)
commit, to (v.) – gatrauan (III weak) (As in, commit in trust. For commit as in dedication, commit oneself to something, see strife, to)
commonwealth – usmet (n. A)
communicate, to (v.) – 1. ussakan (VI abl.) + dat for persons or acc for things 2. gamainjan (I weak i)
communication – 1. waurd (n. A) (Matt 5:37 But let your communication be – sijaiþ~þan waurd izwar) 2. gawaurdi (n. Ja)
communism – 1. *gamainalaiseins (f. I/O) 2. *gamaineins laiseins (f. I/O) 3. *kaumunismus (m. U)
communist – 1. *kaumunistus (m. U) 2. *gamainalaiseinja (m. N) 3. *gamainalaiseinjo (f. N)
communistic – *kaumunists (adj. A)
companion – gahlaiba (m. N)
company (n.)to have ~ with = blandan (III red) miþ + dat.
compare, to – galeikon (II weak) + dat (dative is that to which is compared)
compassionto have ~ = infeinan (IV weak)
compel, to – 1. ananauþjan (I weak i) + acc. 2. baidjan (I weak i) + acc.
complain, to (v.) – hiufan (abl. II)
concoct, to (v.) – bruggwōn (II weak) (in a bad sense, as in to make evil plans)
concord (n.) – samaqiss (f. I)
concubine (n.) – *aljo (f. N)
concupiscence (n.) – gairuni (n. Ja)
condemn, to (v.) – gawargjan (I weak i) + dat
condemnation (n.) – wargiþa (f. O)
conference (n.) – gaqumþs (f. I)
confess, to (v.) – andhaitan (red. I) + dat.
confirm, to – gatulgjan (I weak i)
confirmation – *gatulgeins (f. I/O)
congress (n.) – gaqumþs (f. I)
connectedly – gahahjo
conscience – 1. miþwissei (f. N) 2. þuhtus (m. U) 3. gahugds (f. I)
consent – gaqiss (adj. A)
consequently – nu
consider, to (v.) – andsaihwan (V abl)
consist, to (v.) – ussatiþs (I weak j) wisan, and by him all things consist = jah alla in imma ussatida sind.
consolation – þrafsteins (f. I/O)
conspiracy – birunains (f. I) ~ theory = *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O) birunainais
conspirator – *birunands (m. Cons.)
conspire, to – birunan (III)
constrain, to (v.) – nauþjan (I weak i)
consume, to – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
contain, to – haban (III weak)
container~ for transport = *barils (m. A)
contentto be ~ = ganohiþs (I weak i) wisan
continence – gahobains (f. I)
continual (adj.) – unhweila (adj. A weak)
continually (adv.) – sinteino
contrariwise – wiþrawairþo
contrary – andaneiþs (adj. A)
convenient – gatils (adj. A)
conveniently – gatilaba
convent – *maunasteri (n. Ja) (W.E.)
convention – gaqumþs (f. I)
conversation – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
conversion – gawandeins (f. I/O)
cool – *kolus (adj. U)
Copenhagen – *Kaupahabana (f. O) It should be noted that -mann-compounds appear to be a later development in Germanic: the usual early denominative agent-suffix was -jan- and deverbative -an-; cf. OHG ‘koufo /koufari / koufman’ to ModG ‘Kaufmann; OE ‘ciepa / ciepemann / ceapemann’ to ModE ‘chapman’, these forms showing the development away from n-stems in favour of ‘-er’ and ‘-man’ derivatives. Given that the root *kaup- is regarded as a loanword from Latin caupo ‘merchant’, it seems most likely that the late Proto-Germanic word for ‘merchant’ was ‘*kaupo’ (masc. n-stem), which would give a Gothic *’kaupa’ (masc. n-stem), and so *’kaupa-‘ rather than *’kaupamann-‘ is a better choice. Moreover, Gothic ‘haven, harbour’ was more likely *’habana’, given that the Celtic cognates suggest a Proto-Germanic *’habano’ (fem. o-stem) and not **’habno’. Thus a Gothic *Kaupahabana (fem. o-stem) is recommended a better choice.
coppersmith – aizasmiþa (m. N)
corner – waihsta (m. N), ~ stone = waihstastains (m. A)
corporal – leikeins (adj. A)
corporeal – leikeins (adj. A)
correction – garaihteins (f. I/O)
corrupt, to – riurjan (I weak i)
corruption – riurei (f. N) (as in eternal destruction)
costly – galaufs (adj. A), very ~ = filugalaufs (adj. A)
cotton – *bagmawulla (f. O)
council – gafaurds (f. I), to take ~ = runa (f. O) gataujan (I)
counsel – to give ~ = garaginon (II weak) (perf.)
counsellor – ragineis (m. Ja)
country – land (n. A)
countryman – inkunja (m. N)
course (n.) – runs (m. I) (A course in a walk)
cousin – 1. gadilligs (m. Noun) (male) 2. niþjo (f. N) (female) 3. ganiþjis (m. Ja)
coutiousness – gaþagki (n. Ja)
covenant (n.) – triggwa (f. O)
cover, to – huljan (I weak j)
cow – *kos (f. Cons)
coward (n.) – *arga (m. adj. weak)
craftiness – warei (f. N)
crane – *krana (m. N)
crazy – 1. dwals (adj. A) (foolish, stupid) 2. woþs (adj. A) (raging mad, insane)
cream – 1. *raums (m. A) 2. *riuma (m. N)
creation – gaskafts (f. I)
creature (n.) – gaskafts (f. I)
creditor – dulgahaitja (m. N)
creep, to – sliupan (II abl) (as in creep into the house)
crime – missadeþs (f. I)
criminological – *missadedileis (adj. A)
criminologist – 1. *missadedileis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *missadedileisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
criminology – *missadedileisei (f. N)
crooked – wraiqs (adj. A)
cross – 1. *kruks (m./n. A) 2. galga (m. N) (christian cross)
crow, to – hrukjan (I weak i)
crown – 1. waips (m. Noun) 2. wipja (f. Jo)
crown, to – weipan (I abl)
crucify, to – 1. ushramjan (I j) 2. hramjan (I weak j)
crumbs – drauhnos (f. O plur)
craft – *krafts (f. I)
cry (n.) – hrops (m. A)
cry, to (v.) – wopjan (I weak i)
crystal – *eisastains (m. A)
cube – 1. *kubus (m. U) 2. *kwbus (m. U)
cubit – aleina (f. O)
cuckoo bird – *gauks (m. A)
cultural – *biuhtje (lit. Of the customs)
culture – 1. *kunjahaidus (m. U) (lit. tribe-manner) 2. *biuhtja (n. Ja) (lit. customs)
cup – stikls (m. A), ~ of water = stikls (m. A) watin
cupboard – *armali (n. Ja) (W. E.)
custom – 1. biuhti (n. Ja), according to the ~ = bi biuhtja 2. biuhts (adj. A)
cut, to – maitan (I red), ~ off = usmaitan (I red)
cymbal – klismo (f. N)
Czech – 1. *Tsjaiks (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Tsjaikisks (adj. A)
Czech republic – *Tsjaikaland (n. A)
Dalmatia – Dalmatia (f. Declined as O)
Damascian – Damasks (adj. A)
Damascus – *Damasko (f. N)
daily – 1. sinteino (adv) 2. sinteins (adj. A) 3. seiteins (adj. A)
damnation – afdomeins (f. I/O)
dance – laiks (m. A)
dance, to – plinsjan (I i weak)
Dane – *Dans (m. I)
Danish – 1. *Daniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Danisks (adj. A)
danger – 1. bireikei (f. N) (the state of being in danger) 2. sleiþei (f. N) (potential external harm or destruction)
dangerous – sleiþs (adj. I/Ja) (declined as -ja stem mostly)
Danube – *Donaweis (m. Ja)
dare, to – anananþjan (I weak)
dark – *riqizeins (adj. A)
darkness – riqis (n. A)
dart – arhwazna (f. O)
darts – arhwaznos (f. O)
data – *data (n. A plural), big ~ = mikila (adj. A plural) *data (n. A plural)
database – *datahuzd (n. A)
dative – *dateibus (m. U)
daughter – dauhtar (f. R)
daughter-in-law – *snuza (f. O)
day – dags (m. A), daily = daga hwammeh, ~ by ~ = daga jah daga, every ~ = dags hindar daga (as a continuation of days in which something happens), the eighth ~ = ahtaudogs (adj. A), the next ~ = afardags (m. A), to~ = himma daga,
deacon – diakaunus (m. U)
deafto become ~ = afdaubnan (IV weak)
deafness – 1. daubiþa (f. O) 2. daubei (f. N)
death – dauþus (m. U), appointed to ~ = dauþubleis (adj. Ja)
debt – skuld (n. A)
debtor – 1. skula (m. N) 2. faihuskula (m. N) (Only occurs once)
decade (n.) – taihun jera (n. A plural)
deceit – liutei (f. N)
deceitfullness – afmarzeins (f. I/O)
deceive, to – 1. afairzjan (I weak), he ~s himself = sis silbin fraþjamarzeins ist 2. usluton (II weak)
declare, to (v.) – gakannjan (I weak i)
declaration – insahts (f. I)
decree – gagrefts (f. I)
deed – taui (n. Ja) (dat. sing. and nom./acc. plur. = toja, dat. plur. = tojam)
deep – diups (adj. A)
deepness – diupei (f. N)
deer – 1. *raiha (m. N) 2. *raihs (m. A)
defend, to – gawitan (pret-pres)
defiled, to be – bisaulnan (IV weak)
deliver, to (v.) – 1. atgiban (V abl.) (lest at any time the adversary delivers you to the judge – ibai hvan atgibai þuk sa andastaua stauin) 2. undredan (abl red)
democracy (n.) – *dēmaúkratia (f. Jo)
demon (n.) – 1. unhulþo (f. N)
demonological – *unhulþaleis (adj. A)
demonologist – 1. *unhulþaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *unhulþaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
demonology – *unhulþaleisei (f. N)
Denmark – Danimarka (f. O)
dentist – *tunþulekeis (m. Ja)
deny, to – afaikan (VII)
depart, to – 1. afleiþan (abl. I) 2. aftiuhan (II abl)
departure – diswiss (f. I)
deposit – wadi (n. Ja)
descend, to – gasteigan (I abl)
desert – 1. auþida (f. O) 2. auþeis (adj. Ja)
desire – 1. lustus (m. U) 2. gairnei (f. N)
desire, to – 1. luston (II weak) + gen (as in feeling lust for another person) 2. wiljan (conjugated as subjunctive) (desire as in to want something, having a desire)
desirous – gairns (adj.)
desolate – ainakls (adj. A)
despise, to – frakunnan (pret-pres) + dat.
destruction – fralusts (f. I)
determine, to (v.) – raidjan (I weak i) rightly dividing the word of truth = raihtaba raidjandan waurd sunjos
devil – 1. diabaulus (m. U) (the devil) 2. unhulþo (f. N) (a devil)
devout – gudafaurhts (adj. A)
dictator (n.) – fraujinōnds (m. Nd.)
dictatorship (n.) – fraujinassus (m. U)
dictionary – (neol) *waurdabokos (f. O)
die, to – 1. gaswiltan (III abl)
difference – 1. gaskaideins (f. I/O) 2. anþarleikei (f. N) (only in skeireins)
different – missaleiks (adj. A)
difficult – 1. aglus (adj. U) 2. agluba (adv)
dig, to (v.) – usgraban (VI abl.)
diligence (n.) – usdaudei (f. N)
diligently (adv.) – glaggwuba (adv.)
diminishing – wanains (f. I)
dinner – undaurnimats (m. I)
disclose, to (v.) – andhuljan (I weak j)
discouragement – unlustus (m. U)
discuss, to (v.) – sokjan samana (I weak i)
dishonour – unswerei (f. N)
dismiss, to (v.) – letan (VII strong)
disobedience – ufarhauseins (f. I/O)
disorderly – ungatewiþs (past-perf)
dispensation – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
disposed – garaiþs (adj. A)
dispute, to (v.) – sakan (VI abl) + dat.
disputed – *andsakans (part-perf)
disputer – sokareis (m. Ja)
disregard, to – ~ life = ufarmunnon (II weak) saiwalai
dissemble, to (v.)~ with someone = miþlitjan (I weak j) + dat (And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him , Gal. 2:13 = jah miþlitidedun imma þai anþarai Iudaieis)
dissimulation (n.) – lita (f. O)
distaff – *rukka (m. N)
distress – aggwiþa (f. O)
ditch – dals (m. Noun)
division – missaqiss (f. I) (in opinion between people)
divorce (n.) – afstass (f. I)
divorce, to (v.) – afsatjan (I weak)
divorcement – afsateins (f. I/O)
Dniepr – *Agaliggs (m. A) (>”magpie river” according to Peutinger map called like this by the Goths)
Dniester – *Nasuks (m. A) (the little nose)
doctor – laisareis (m. Ja), ~ of the law = witodalaisareis (m. Ja)
doctrine – laiseins (f. I/O)
document (n.) – *karta (f. O)
dominion – fraujinassus (m. U)
donkey – assilus (m. U)
doomsday – *stauadags (m. A)
doubting – tweifleins (f. I/O)
dove (n.) – ahaks (noun) (white tame dove)
download, to – *ufarbairan (IV abl)
dragma – drakma (m. N)
dragon – 1. *waurms (m. A) 2. *draka (m. An)
drake (n.) – *anudareiks (m. N) (duck-king, etymology of drake)
dream – 1. *swifns (m. A) 2. *draums (m. A)
dream, to – *draumjan (heavy i weak), I dreamed = mik draumida
drink (n.) – dragk (n. A)
drink, to – drigkan (III abl)
drugs – *lubi (n. Ja)
drunk, to be – anadrigkan (III abl) + dat
drunkard – afdrugkja (m. N)
drunkenness – drugkanei (f. N)
dry – þaursus (adj. U)
dryad (wood-dweller) – *widugauja (m. N)
duchess – *harjatugo (f. N)
Dublin – *Swartaswumfsl (n. A)
duchy (n.) – *Dukātus (m. U)
duck (n.) – *anuþs (f. N)
duke – *harjatuga (m. N)
dust – stubjus (m. U)
Dutch – 1. *niþralandja (m. N) 2. *niþralandisks (adj. A)
dwarf – *dwairgs (m. A)
dwell, to (v.) – bauan (verb)
dwelling (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural)
dying – dauþeins (f. I/O)
eager – gairns (adj.)
eagerness (n.) – aljan (n. A)
eagle – ara (m. N)
ear – auso (n. N), ~ of corn = ahs (n. A)
earl – *airls (m. A)
earlier – airis
early – air
earnest – wadi (n. Ja)
earth – airþa (f. O)
earthly (adj.) – airþeins (adj. A)
earthquake – reiro (f. N)
earthy – 1. airþeins (adj. A) 2. airþakunds (adj. A) (only occurs once in the skeireins)
easier – raþiza (Comp.)
east – 1. *austrs (m. A) 2. *austra- (adj.), from the ~ = *austana, in the ~ = *austar, to the ~ = *austar
eastwards – *austar
easy – azets (adj. A)
eat, to – matjan (I j weak)
ecclesiology – *aikklesjaleisei (f. N)
eclipse – solar ~ = sunnins riqis (n. A), lunar ~ = menins riqis (n. A)
Edda – *Izdo (f. N)
edification – gatimreins (f. I/O)
eel – *els (m. A)
effect (n.) – taui (n. Ja)
effectual (adj.) – waurstweigs (adj. A)
effectually (adv.) – waurstweig
egg – *addi (n. Ja)
either~ … or = andizuh … aiþþau
elbow – *aleinabuga (m. N) the word ‘elbow’ meant originally ‘ell-bow,’ an ‘ell’ being a measurement. The word for ‘ell’ is in fact extant, to wit, ‘aleina’, and so *’aleinabuga’ (masc. n-stem) would be more likely.
elder– 1. alþeis (adj. Ja) 2. praizbwtairei (f. N) (from jewish religion)
election – gawaleins (f. I/O)
electron – *elaiktraun (n.)
electronics – *elaiktraunika (n. A plural)
element – stafs (m. I) (f changes to b in gen. and dat. Sing. and all plural forms)
elf – 1. *albs (m. A) 2. *albs (m. I) There were two variants for ‘elf’ in Proto-Germanic:
*albiz (i-stem) and *albaz (a-stem); the latter appears to
have been more widespread, and the Gothic equivalent of it
would be *albs (a-stem), cf. the Latinized Gothic names
Albila (‘little elf’) and Albis = *Albeis (‘little elf’).

email – 1. *e-bokos (f. O plural) (a mail itself) 2. *waurdasandja (f. O) (e-mail service) (lit. word-sender) 3. *waurdjo (f. Jon) (e-mail service) (lit. worder)
elsewhere – aljah
embassador – to be ~ = airinon (II weak)
emerald – *smaragdus (m. U)
emotion – *ahins (undeclined) drobna (m. N)
emperor (n.) – kaisar (m. A)
emperorship (n.) – *kaisarinassus (m. U)
employee (n.) – gawaurstwa (m. N)
empty – laus (adj. A), with ~ hands = laushandus (adj. U)
end – andeis (m. Ja)
end, to (v.) – ustiuhan (II abl)
endless – 1. andalaus 2. andilaus (adj. A)
endure, to – usbeidan (I abl) + acc
enemy – fijands (m. Nd)
energy – *mahts (f. I)
entire (adj.) – alls (adj. strong)
England – land (n. A) *aggile
English – *Aggils (adj. A)
Englishman – *Aggils (m. I)
enlarge, to – urrumnan (IV weak)
enlighten, to – inliuhtjan (I weak i)
Enlightment – *inliuhteins (f. I/O)
enmity – fijaþwa (f. O)
enough – it is ~ = ganah
enriched, to be – gabignan (IV weak)
enroll, to (v.) – anameljan (I weak)
entire – alls (adj. A)
envy – neiþ (n. A)
equality – ibnassus (m. U)
error – 1. airzei (f. N) 2. airziþa (f. O)
escape, to – unþaþliuhan (II abl) + acc
Esperantist – *Aispairantistus (m. U)
Esperanto – *Aispairanto (f. N)
estate – 1. low ~ = hnaiweins (f. I/O) 2. *oþal (n. A)
eternal – aiweins (adj. A)
eternity – 1. aiws (m. A/I) (accusative plural declines as aiwins, the rest as an a-stem) 2. ajukduþs (f. I)
euro (n.) – *aíwrō (n. N)
Europe – *aiwropa (f. O)
European – 1. (noun) *Aiwropus (m. U/I) 2. *aiwropisks (adj. A)
evangelist – aiwaggelista (m. N)
even – often not translated or omitted, ~ so = swah, swaswe = even as; the same as
evening – andanahti (n. Ja)
everfor ~ and ~ = du aiwam
everlasting – aiweins (adj. A)
evermore – framwigis
every – 1. hwarjis (m.) (dat. = hwarjammeh, acc. = hwarjanoh) 2. hwarjatoh (n.) (gen. = hwarjizuh, dat. = hwarjammeh) 3. *hwarjoh (f.) (gen. = *hwarjizozuh, dat. = *hwarjaih acc. = hwarjoh) 4. in ~ thing = in allamma
everywhere – hwaruh
evil – unþiuþ (n. A)
exactly (adv.) – glaggwuba
exalt, to – ushauhjan (I i)
exalted, to be – ufarhafnan (IV weak)
examine, to – ussokjan (I i weak)
example – frisahts (f. I)
exceed, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
exclude, to – usletan (V red abl)
exclusion – *uslet (n. A)
excess – usstiurei (f. N)
except – 1. nibai (þatei nibai managizo wairþiþ izwaraizos garaihteins – That except your righteousness shall exceed) 2. alja + dat
excuse oneself, to – 1. sik faurqiþanana/a haban, (m) excuse me = habai mik faurqiþanana (f) habai mik faurqiþana 2. sunjon (II weak)
exercise – usþroþeins (f. I/O)
expend (v.) – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
experiment – gakusts (f. I)
explanation – skeireins (f. I/O)
extraordinary – ussindo
eye – augo (n. N), evil ~ = augo unsel, ~ of a needle = þairko (n. N), with one ~ = haihs (adj. A)
eyeliner – *augaswartis (n. A)
eyewitness – silbasiuneis (m. Ja)
fable – spill (n. A)
face – 1. ludja (f. Jo) 2. wlits (noun)
fainted – afdauiþs (part-perf)
faith – galaubeins (f. I/O)
faithful – galaubeins (adj. A)
falcon – *habuks (m. A)
fall – drus (m. Noun) (dative singular = drusa)
fall, to – 1. driusan (II abl), ~ down = atdriusan (II abl), ~ from = usdriusan (II abl), ~ upon = disdriusan (II abl) + acc 2. walwison (II weak), ~ on the ground = ana airþa walwison (II weak)
fallow – *falws (adj. Wa)
fame (n.) – meriþa (f. O)
familiar – biuhts (adj. A)
family – 1. gards (m. I) (literally: house) 2. fadreins (f. I) (literally: lineage)
famine – huhrus (m. U)
fan – winþiskauro (f. N) (to blow wind)
farao – farao (m. N)
farewellto bid ~ = andqiþan (V abl)
fasting – lausqiþrei (f. N)
fate – *waurþs (f. I)
father – 1. atta (m. N) 2. fadar (m. R) (Only occurs once and used for an earthly father, but atta can be used for an earthly father too.)
fatigue, to – *afdojan (I weak)
fatten, to (v.) – aljan (I weak j)
favoured – audahafts (adj. A)
fear – agis (n. A)
feast – dulþs (f. I)
feather – *fiþra (f. O)
feeble – gamaiþs (adj.)
feebleminded – grindafraþjis (adj. Ja)
fellowship – gamainei (f. N)
female – qineins (adj. A)
Fenrir (wolf myth.) – *fanareis (m. Ja)
fetters – þo ana fotum eisarna (n. A)
fever – 1. brinno (f. N) 2. heito (f. N)
few – faus (adj. A)
fiend – fijands (m. Cons.)
fierce (adj.) – sleiþs (adj. I/Ja) (declined as -ja stem mostly)
fiery – funisks (adj. A)
fig – smakka (m. N)
fig tree – smakkabagms (m. A)
fight, to – 1. jiukan (III weak) 2. haifstjan (I i weak)»
(only occurs once) 3. weihan (I abl)
fighting – waihjo (f. N)
fill, to – fulljan (I i weak), get filled, to – fullnan (IV weak)
film – *film (n. A)
filthiness – bisauleins (f. I/O)
filthy – ~ lucre = aglaitigastalds (adj. A)
find, to – bigitan (V abl)
finger – figgrs (m. A)
Finland – *Finnahaiþi (f. Jo) (Attested in the Getica by Jordanes)
Finn – *Finnahaiþs (m. A)
Finnish – *Finnisks (adj. A)
fire – fon (noun) (gen. Sing. = funins, dat. Sing. = funin)
first – 1. fruma (adj. A weak) (used for normal use of the word first, in counting) 2. frumists (adj. A) (used as “the very first” or “the very best”, not used in counting)
firstfruit – ufarskafts (f. I)
fish – fisks (m. A)
fisher – fiskja (m. N)
fit – 1. gatils (adj. A) 2. fagrs (adj. A)
fit, to – gamanwjan (I i weak)
fitly – gatemiba
five – fimf
fix, to (v.) – raidjan (I weak i)
flag – *fana (m. N)
flame – *ail (n. A)
flaming (adj.) – lauhmunjai (f. Jo) (literally: in spark)
flee, to – afþliuhan (II abl) (perfective)
flesh – mammo (f. N) (human meat) 2. mimz (noun) (of meat to eat)
flight – þlauhs (m. I)
flock – aweþi (n. Ja)
flood – 1. ahwa (f. O) 2. garunjo (f. N) 3. midjaswipains (f. I) (natural disaster)
flood, to – swipan (III)
floor – gaþrask (n. A)
flow (v.) – gutnan (IV weak)
flower – bloma (m. N)
flower, to – *blauan (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
flute – to play ~ = swiglon (II weak)
fly (n.) – *fliugo (f. N)
fly, to – *fliugan (II)
foam – hwaþo (f. N)
follow, to – afarlaistjan (I i weak) + dat
follower – galaista (m. N)
foolish – unfroþs (adj. A)
foolishness – 1. unwiti (n. Ja) 2. niuklahei (f. N)
foot – fotus (m. U)
football – *fotuballa (m. N)
footstool (n.) – fotubaurd (n. A)
for – 1. (For as intention) dative use, eg. For him = imma 2. faur (for something) 3. in þis (because) 4. auk (only in second or third position) (synonym of because as giving a reason)
forbid, to – warjan (i weak j), God ~ = Nis-sijai
forefathers – airizans (Comp. Weak)
forest – *widus (m. U)
forget, to – ufarmunnon (II weak)
forgive, to – fraletan (red abl)
forgiveness (n.) – fralet (n. A)
fork (n.) – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
form (n.) – hiwi (n. Ja)
form, to (v.) – gadigan (abl I)
formed (adj.) – garaiþs (adj. A)
fornication (n.) – 1. kalkinassus (m. U) 2. horinassus (m. U)
forsake, to (v.) – bileiþan (I)
forswear, to (v.) – ufarswaran (VI abl)
forum (n.) – *maþl (n. A) (online too)
found, to (v.) – gasuljan (I j weak)
foundation (n.) – 1. gaskafts (f. I) (as in foundation of the world) 2. *gasuleins (f. I/O) 3. grunduwaddjus (m. U) (stone wall)
fountain (n.) – brunna (m. N)
four – fidwor, dat. = fidworim
fox (n.) – fauho (f. N)
fragment (n.) – gabruko (f. O)
France (n.) – *Fragkareiki (n. Ja)
Franconia (n.) – *Fragkaland (n. A)
free – freis (adj. Ja), ~ from = freis (adj. Ja) + gen, for ~ / ~ of charge = arwjo (adv.)
freedom – 1. freihals (m. A) 2. frijei (f. N) (only one occurence)
freeman – fralets (m. Noun)
freemason – 1. *freitimrja (m. N) 2. *frijatimrja (m. N) It can be ‘frijatimrja rather than *freitimrja. This assumes that the normal compounding pattern is followed, to wit, the initial element = root+stem vowel, which in this case would be ‘frija-‘. However, this pattern was clearly weakening in Gothic, and one finds compounds without the expected stem-vowel (e.g. ‘gudhus’ and not **’gudahus, amongst others). Given the existence of ‘freihals’ (rather than *frijahals), ‘freitimrja’ should be acceptable as well.
freemasonry – *freitimreins (f. I/O) 2. *frijatimreins (f. I/O)
Freyja – frauja (f. O)
Freyr – fraujis (m. Ja)
freeze, to – friusan (II)
Friday – *fraujins dags (m. A)
friend – 1. (m.) frijonds (m. Nd) 2. (f.) frijondi (f. Jo)
fright – agis (n. A)
frighten, to – usagjan (I weak j)
frog – *frusks (m. A)
frost – frius (n. A)
fruit – akran (n. A), to bring ~ = gawrisqan (III abl)
fruitless – akranalaus (adj. A)
fuck (n.) / exclamation – skohsl (n. A)
fuck, to – *sairdan (III)
fulfilling – usfulleins (f. I/O)
full – fulls (adj. A) + gen (gen. is used when translated as full of)
fuller – wullareis (m. Ja)
fullness – fullo (f. N)
furtherance – framgahts (f. I)
future – 1. *anawairþ (n. A) 2. anawairþs (adj. A)
futurologist (n.) – 1. *andwairþaleis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *andwairþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
futurology (n.) – 1. *andwairþaleisei (f. N)
gain – faihugawaurki (n. Ja) (gain in possession)
gain, to – gageigan (III weak) ~ from = bifaihon (II weak)
Galatia – Galatia (f. O)
Galatian – Galateis (m. I)
Galilee – Galeilaius (m. U/I)
garbage – maihstus (m. U)
garden – aurtigards (m. I)
garment – snaga (m. N)
gate – 1. daur (n. A) 2. dauro (f. N)
gather, to – lisan (V abl.)
gathering – gaqumþs (m. I)
gay – *samalustja (m. N) (homosexual)
Geat – *gauts (m. A)
genealogy – gabaurþiwaurd (n. A)
genitive – *gainiteibus (m. U)
Gentiles (n.) – þiudos (f. O) (plural)
gentle – qairrus (adj. U)
gentleness – 1. selei (fu. N) 2. mukamodei (f. N)
genuine (adj.) – pistikeins (adj. A) (Greek)
geological – *airþaleis (adj. A)
geologist – 1. *airþaleis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *airþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective) The element -leis- appears to be ultimately an adjective, derived from the verb *lisan (preterite present class). The 1st p. pres. indic. form ‘lais’ (‘I know’) is found at Php 4.12. The causative of this verb is ‘laisjan’ (‘to make s.o. know,’ i.e., ‘to teach, instruct’, cf. Dutch ‘leren,’ Germ. ‘lehren,’ Engl. ‘learn’). In his Etymologisches Woerterbuch der germanischen Primaeradjektive (1993: 370-371), Heidermanns glosses ‘leis-‘ as ‘kundig’. The noun ‘filudeisei’ (‘cunning’) is likely dissimulated from *filuleisei, or a copyist’s error. Adjectives in Germanic can be used as nouns, and the form ‘lubjaleis’ (masc. a-stem) glosses ‘liuts’ (‘hypocrite’) at 2Tm3.13. Thus, if -leisei is used as a counterpart of -ology, then the corresponding agent noun is simply -leis (masc. a-stem). And so if you create a noun *airthaleisei ‘geography’, then ‘geographer’ would be *airthaleis (masc. a-stem), or *airthaleisa (fem. o-stem), literally ‘the earth-knowledgeable one.’
geology – *airþaleisei (f. N)
German – *gairmanisks (adj. A)
Germanism – *Gairmanismus (m. U)
Germany – *Gairmanja (f. O)
ghost – ahma (m. N) (disembodied spirit)
giant – 1. *þauris (m. A) 2. *wrisja (m. N) (enormous)
gift – giba (f. O)
gird, to – bigairdan (III abl)
girdle – gairda (f. O)
girl – mawilo (f. N)
give, to – giban (V abl) + dat
giver – gibands (m. Nd)
glad – to be ~ = faginon (II weak)
gladly – gabaurjaba
gladness – swegniþa (f. O)
glister, to (v.) – glitmunjan (I weak i)
glitter, to (v.) – glitmunjan (I weak i)
global (adj. – 1. ana airþai (lit. on the globe 2. krigglons (lit. of the globe)
global warming (n.) – heito (f. N) midjungardis
globe (n.) – 1. *krigglo (f. N) (cf. Old Norse: heims-kringla) 2. *kūlo (f. N)
glorified, to be (v.) – ushauhnan (IV weak)
glorify, to – 1. hauhjan (I weak i) 2. gasweran (III weak)
glory – wulþus (m. U)
glove – *lauhs (m. A)
glutton – afetja (m. N)
gnushing – krusts (m. Noun)
go, to – gaggan (III red), ~ before (someone/something) = faurbigaggan (III red) ~ with = miþgaggan (III red)
goal – mundrei (f. N)
goat – gaits (m. I), ~’s milk = gaitimiluks (f. Cons.)
God – 1. Guþ (m. A) (Abrahamic God) 2. Guþ (n. A) (other God then christian or jewish one), the form of ~ = gudaskaunei (f. N) 3. *ansus (m. U) (used for Germanic Gods)
goddess – *gudeinja (f. Jo)
god-fearing – gudafaurhts (adj. A)
godless – gudalaus (adj. A)
godliness – gagudei (f. N)
godly – 1. gudisks (adj. A) 2. gaguþs (adj. A)
gold – gulþ (n. A)
golden – gulþeins (adj. A)
good – goþs (adj. A)
goodness – selei (f. N)
goose – *gans (f. Cons.)
gospel – aiwaggeljo (f. N)
Goth – Guta (m. A)
Gothic (adj.) – *Gutisks (adj. A)
Gothic (n.) –  *Gutisk (n. A), Gutrazda (f. O)
Gothiscandza – *Gutskaþja (f. Jo)
Goths – Gutþiuda (f. O) among the ~ – ana Gutþiudai
government (n.) – reikinassus (m. U)
governor – kindins (m. A)
grace – ansts (f. I)
gracious – hulþs (adj. A)
grains – *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
grammar (n.) – 1. *grammatika (f. O) 2. *razdatimreins (f. I)
grandfather – *awa (m. N)
grandma – awo (f. N)
grandmother – awo (f. N)
grandpa – *awa (m. N)
grape – weinabasi (n. Ja)
grass – hawi (n. Ja)
grave – 1. hlaiw (n. A) 2. gariuþs (adj. A)
graveyard – *nawistre gards (m. I)
great – mikils (adj. A)
greater – maiza (Comp.)
greatness – mikilei (f. N)
Greece – *Krekaland (n. A)
greed – 1. faihufrikei (f. N) 2. faihugairnei (f. N) 3. faihugeiro (f. N)
Greek – Kreks (m. A)
green – *groneis (adj. Ja)
Greenland – *Groniland (n. A)
Greenlandic – 1. *Gronilandisks (adj. A) 2. *Gronilandiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) (language)
greeting – goleins (f. I/O)
grey – 1. *grews (adj. A) 2. *graus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
grief (n.) – saurga (f. O)
groan, to – inrauhtjan (I weak i)
group – 1. kuni (n. Ja) (tribe or subdivision of hierarchy) 2. kubitus (m. U) (group around table)
grow, to – liudan (II abl) ~ older = usalþan (III red)
guest-chamber (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural)
hagiography – *weihameleins (f. I/O)
hagiology – *weihaleisei (f. N)
hail – hagl (n. A)
hair (n.) – 1. tagl (n. A) (a single hair) 2. hrusk (n. A) (all the hair on the head)
half – 1. halba (f. O) 2. halbs (adj. A)
hall (n.) – rohsns (f. I)
hallowed, to be – weihnan (IV weak)
hand – handus (f. U)
hang, to – hahan (III red), ~ oneself = ushahan sik (III red)
happen, to – wairþan (III)
harbor – *habana (f. O)
hard – 1. hardus (adj. U) 2. aglus (adj. U) (synonym of difficult)
hardly – 1. harduba (adv) (adverb of hard) 2. agluba (synonym of difficult) 3. halisaiw (barely)
hardness – ~ of heart = harduhairtei (f. N)
haste – with ~ = sniumundo
hasten, to (v.) – rinnan (III)
hatred (n.) – hatis (n. A)
have, to (v.) – haban (III weak) (for things which one possesses, for to have to, e.g. I have to, use skulan (pret. pres.).)
hawk – *habuks (m. A)
hay (n.) – hawi (n. Ja)
head (n.) – haubiþ (n. A)
heal, to – leikinon (II weak)
healed, to be – gahailnan (IV weak)
healing – leikinassus (m. U)
hear, to – 1. hausjan (I i weak) 2. hausjon (II weak)
heart – hairto (n. N), hardness of ~ = harduhairtei (f. N)
heathens (n.) – þiudos (f. O) (plural)
heaven – himins (m. A) (never with article, accompanying adjective always declines strongly)
heavenly – himinakunds (adj. A)
Hebrew – 1. Haibraius (m. U/I) (person) 2. *Haibraiwisks (adj. A), ~ language = *Haibraiwiska (adj. A) razda (f. O)
hedge – faþa (f. O)
heel – fairzna (f. O)
height – hauhei (f. N)
heir – 1. arbja (m. N) 2. arbinumja (m. N)
heiress – arbjo (f. N)
hell – 1. gaiainna (noun, N declension) (Greek) 2. halja (f. O), to ~ with you = *Diabaulus þuk nimai
hello – 1. hails + voc (to a man), haila + voc (to a woman) 2. Golja þuk 3. Fagino
helmet – hilms (m. A)
help, to – 1. hilpan (III abl) + gen. 2. niþan (V abl) + acc.
Helsinki – *Halsiggefurs
hem (n.)~ of a garment = skauts (*m. A)
hen – *hano (f. N)
henceforth – fram himma nu
herb – gras (n. A)
herbivore (n.) – 1. *grasaētja (m. N) 2. *grōniētja (m. N)
herd – hairda (f. O)
Herding (myth.) – *hazdiggs (m. A)
here – her
Herodian – Herodianus (m. U/I)
Herule – *Airuls (m. A)
hero – *haliþs / *haluþs (m. Cons.)
hew, to – ~ out = ushulon (II weak)
hi – see: hello
hide, to – affilhan (III abl)
hidden – 1. analaugns (adj. I) 2. fulgins (adj. A)
Hierapolis – Iairapaulei (noun)
high – hauhs (adj. A)
higher – 1. hauhis 2. auhuma (comp. Weak)
highly (adv.) – hauhaba
highway – wigs (m. A)
hill – hlains (m. A)
hill-country – bairgahei (f. N)
him – imma (dat) ina (acc)
hinder, to – analatjan (I j weak)
hip – hups (m. I)
hireling – asneis (m. Ja)
his – is, seinis (gen. M/N), seinaizos (gen. F), seinamma (dat. M/N), seinai (dat. F), seinana (acc. M), seinaize (gen. M/N pl.), seinaizo (gen. F pl.), seinaim (dat. Pl.) seinans (acc. M. Pl.) seina (acc. N. Pl.), seinos (acc. F. Pl.) ( Sein- is used to refer back to a 3rd person subject. In these cases is (‘his’) or izos (‘her’) would also work. Is and izos would be necessary if the noun they refer back to is not the subject of the sentence. Example: Hunds meins beitiþ bain sein. My dog bites his bone. Hunds anþar beitiþ bain is (þatei ist bain hundis meinis). Another dog bites his bone (that is my dog’s bone). Sein- = ones own, is = of someone else) Explained by Iaihime
history – *spill (n. A)
hither – hidre
Hlin (myth.) – *Hleins (m. A)
Hoder (myth.) – *Haflus (m. U)
hole – þairko (f. N)
holiness – weihiþa (f. O)
holocaust – alabrunsts (f. I)
holy – 1. weihs (adj. A)
holyday (n.) – dags (m. A) dulþais
home – gards (m. I), to take ~ = in gard tiuhan, at ~ = anahaimeis (adj. Ja), far from ~ = afhaimeis (adj. Ja)
homosexual – *samalustja (m. N)
homestead (n.) – haimoþli (n. Ja)
honesty – gariudi (n. Ja)
honestly – garedaba
honey – miliþ (n. A), bee ~ = biwamiliþ (n. A)
honour – *swerei (f. N)
honourable – 1. galaufs (adj. A) 2. gaguds (adj)
hook (n.) – *anguls (m. A)
hooker (n.) – kalkjo (f. N)
hope – 1. wens (f. I) 2. lubains (f. I)
horse – *marhs (m. A)
hosanna – osanna
hospitable – gastigoþs (adj. A)
hospitality – gastigodei (f. N)
host – wairdus (m. U)
hostile – andaneiþs (adj. A)
hotel – *haribairgo (f. N)
hound (n.) – hunds (m. A)
hour – hweila (f. O), not for an ~ = ni hweilohun
house – razn (n. A)
household – gards (m. I)
hovercraft – *ufarwataskip (n. A)
how – 1. (int.) hwaiwa 2. hwan ( as in: how narrow or how much, how nice)
however – aþþan
human – manna (m. N)
humanity – manniskodus (m. U)
humble (adj.) – hnaiws (adj. A)
humbleness (n.) – hauneins (f. I/O)
hundredfold – •r• falþs (adj. A)
Hungarian – 1. *Hungarus (m. U/I) 2. *Hungariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Hungarisks (adj. A)
Hungary – *Hungarja (f. O)
hunger – 1. gredus (m. U) 2. huhrus (m. U)
hungry – gredags (adj. A)
hunny – miliþ (n. A)
hurry, to – sniwan (V abl)
husband – aba (m. N)
hymn (n.) – hazeins (f. I/O)
hypocrite – 1. liuts (adj. A) 2. liuta (m. N)
I – ik (only used for comparison or emphasis)
ice – *eis (n. A)
Iceland – *+eisaland (n. A)
ichthyology – *fiskaleisei (f. N)
idea – mitons (f. I)
identical (adj.) – sama (adj. A)
ideological – *mitonileis (adj. A)
ideology – *mitonileisei (f. N)
idiot – 1. (m.) dwala (m. N) 2. (f.) dwalo (f. N)
idolatry – galiugagude skalkinassus (m. U) (first part undeclined)
if – 1. ~, indeed (expected answer is yes) = jabai 2. (Expected answer is no), nibai 3. (Rhetorical) Ibai
illuminate, to – galiuhtjan (I weak)
illumination – *galiuhteins (f. I/O)
image – manleika (m. N)
imagination – gahugds (f. I)
immediately – suns
immortal – unriurs (adj. I)
immortality – undiwanei (f. N)
impetuous – gaheis (adj. Ja)
importance – wulþrs (f. I)
important – wulþrais (genitive of sing. worth), it is ~ = wulþrais ist
imprisonment – karkara (f. O)
incinerate, to – *frabrannjan
incontinency – ungahobains (f. I)
increase – uswahst (f. I)
increase, to – biaukan (VII)
independance – freihals (m. A)
in fact – aþþan (beginning of phrase) (2 Cor. 11: in fact, in every way we have made this evident to you in all things. – aþþan in allamma gabairhtidai in allaim du izwis.)
infirmity – unmahts (f. I)
inheritance – arbi (n. Ja)
inheritor – arbinumja (m. N)
injure, to – 1. holon (II weak) 2. gaskaþjan (VI abl.)
injustice – ungaraihtei (f. N)
ink – *swartis (n. A)
insomuch – swaei
inspiration – ahmateins (f. I/O)
instruct, to – usþroþjan (I weak i)
instruction – talzeins (f. I/O)
insult – ganaiteins (f. I/O)
insult, to –  (ga)naitjan (I weak i)
insurrection – auhjodus (m. U)
intend, to – fauragahugjan (I weak j)
intention – muns (m. I)
intercession – liteins (f. I/O)
interest – leihwa (f. O) (finance)
international – *ufarmarkeis (adj. Ja)
internet – +*ganati (n. Ja)
interrupt, to – warjan (I weak j)
intreaty – usbloteins (f. I/O)
invisible – *unanasiuns (adj. I)
inwardly – innaþro
iron – eisarneins (adj. A)
island – hulms (m. A)
Israel – Israel (m. A)
Israeli – 1. Israelitus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Israelisks (adj. A)
Italian – 1. *Italus (m. U/I) 2. *Italiska (adj. A) razda 3. *Italisks (adj. A)
Italy – *Italja (f. O)
itch, to – suþjan (I weak j)
jacket – paida (f. O)
Japan – (neol.) Iapan (m. A)
jealous, to be – aljinon (II weak)
jeopardy (n.)to be in ~ = birekjai wisan (abl. V) Jericho – Eiairiko (f. N)
Jerusalem – Iairusalem (same in all cases except for genitive Iairusalems)
jesting – saldra (f. O)
Jesuit – *Iesuitus (m. U)
Jesus – Iesus (m. A)
Jew – Iudaius (m. U/I)
jewel – precious ~ = *airknastains (m. A)
Jewish – iudaiwisks (adj. A)
job – arbaiþs (f. I)
jobless (adj.) – *arbaidiláus (adj. A)
join, to – ~ together = gagatilon (II weak)
joke – saldra (f. O)
Jordan – Iaurdanus (m. U/I)
journey – wratodus (m. U)
joy – faheþs (f. I)
Judea – Iudaia (f. O)
judge (n.) – staua (m. N)
judgement (n.) – 1. staua (f. O)2. ragin (n. A) (As in an opinion)
jug – aurkeis (m. Ja)
just (adj.) – 1. goþs (adj. A)  2.  garaihts (adj. A)
just (adv.) – 1. (only) þatainei 2. ~ now = nu  3. (simply) ainfalþaba  4. ~ as = swaswe, swe
justify, to – (ga)sunjon (II weak)
keep, to – bairgan (III abl) + dat (as in to keep something)
key – *lukils (m. A)
keyboard – *bokabaurd (n. A) (computer)
kill, to – 1. maurþrjan (I weak i) 2. afslahan (VI)
king – þiudans (m. A)
kingdom – þiudinassus (m. U)
kinsman (n.) – 1. niþjis 2. *samakunja (declined as adj. I)
kiss – frijons (f. I)
kiss, to – kukjan (I) + dat
kiwi – 1. *kiwi (n. Ja) 2. *keiwei (f. N)
knee – kniu (n. Wa)
kneeling – *knussus (m. U)
knife – 1. *kneifs (m. A) 2. *kneiba (m. N) 3. *sahs (n. A)
knock, to – *knukon (II weak)
know, to – kunnan (prt-prs)
knowledge – kunþi (n. Ja)
labour – arbaiþs (f. I)
labour, to (v.) – arbaidjan (I weak j)
lack – 1. gaidw (n. A) 2. waninassus (m. U)
laugh, to~ at = bihlahjan (VI)
lake – marisaiws (m. Noun)
lamb – 1. lamb (n. A) 2. wiþrus (m. U) (only one occurence) 3. *lambamimz (noun) (To eat as flesh)
lame – halts (adj. A)
lament, to – 1. qainon (II weak) 2. gaunon (II weak)
land – land (n. A), ancestral ~ = *oþal (n. A), ~ which one owns = haimoþli (n. Ja)
lantern (n.) – skeim(s) (noun)
Laodicea – Laudeikaia (noun)
lasciviousness – aglaitei (f. N)
last – 1. aftumists (adj. A) 2. spedumists (adj. A) 3. spediza (Comp.), only in: ist so spedeizei airziþa wairsizei þizai frumein = the last error shall be worst than the first 3. aftuma (comp.) (Of two)
late – seiþus (adj. U)
lately – *niujaba
latrine – *gaggs (m. A)
law – witoþ (n. A), under the ~ = uf witoda, doctor of the ~ = witodalaisareis (m. Ja), giving of the ~ = witodis garaideins (f. I/O)
lawfulit is ~ = binah
lawless – witodalaus (adj. A)
lawyer – witodafasteis (m. Ja)
lay, to – ~ down = afhnaiwjan (I i weak)
laying~ of the hands = analageins (f. I/O)
lead, to – tiuhan (II abl), ~ up = ustiuhan (II abl), ~ about = bitiuhan (II abl)
leaf – laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
learned – *uslaisiþs (past-perf), never ~ = unuslaisiþs (past-perf)
least – 1. minnists (adj. Superl.) 2. smalista (suprl.) (Weak)
leather – filleins (adj. A)
leather thong (n.) – skaudaraips (*m. A)
leave, to~ with = bileiþan (I abl.)
leaven – beist (n. A)
left (adj.) – *hleidums (adj. A) (Thomas Lambdin)
left (n.) – hleidumei (f. N)
Leiden (n.) – *laida (f. O)
length – laggei (f. N)
leper – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
leprosy (n.) – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
lesbian – *samalustjo (f. N)
less – 1. mins 2. minniza (Comp.)
lest – ibai sware
let, to – letan (abl red) ~ down = athahan (III red); ~ have = afletan (abl red)
letter – boka (f. O)
Levite (n.)~s = Laiwweiteis
lexicology – *waurdaleisei (f. N)
library – 1. *bokarazn (n. A) 2. *bokahus (n. A)
lick – 1. *bilaigons (f. I) 2. *bilaigoþus (m. U)
lick, to – bilaigon (II weak)
lie (n.) – galiug (n. A)
lie, to – 1. ligan (V abl) (to lie down somewhere) 2. liugan (II abl) (As in telling a lie)
Liechtenstein – (neol) *Liuhtastains (m. A)
lifestyle (n.) – usmet (n. A)
light – 1. liuhaþ (n. A) 2. liuhadei (f. N) 3. leihts (adj. A)
light, to – tandjan (I weak i)
lighthouse – *liuhadakelikn (n. A)
lightning – lauhmuni (f. Jo)
like – 1. swa (As in: Just like him) 2. galeiks (adj. A) (As in: It is like/resembles)
like, to – galeikan (III) + dat (thing which is liked, example: þata galeikaiþ mis = I like it, literally: That pleases me)
likewise – samaleiko
linen – ~ cloth = lein (n. A); fine ~ = bwssaun
linguist – 1. *razdaleis (m. A) 2. *razdaleisa (f. O)
linguistics – *razdaleisei (f. N)
list – wiko (f. N) For ‘list’: since a list is simply a ‘series’ of words, etc., one could possibly use ‘wiko’ (fem. on-stem). The Greek word that it translates is ‘taksis’, which broadly means ‘arranging order’ (cf. the Latin translation ‘ordo’ = ‘order, arrangement’) in the one and only relevant Biblical passage ‘a line-up or shift of priests’ having temple-duty is ment. Based on Germanic cognates, the word wiko would be glossed as ‘sequence, succession, series’ (the modern English ‘week’ stems from the sense of ‘a series of days’).
literacy – *bokaleisei (f. N)
literature – *bokaleisei (f. N)
Lithuania – *Leitawi (f. Jo)
Lithuanian – *Leitauja (m. N)/*Leitaujo (f. N) (person)
liver – *miltja
living (pres. part.) – qius (adj. A)
load, to – *usbriggan (III abl) (digital)
lock, to – lukan (II abl), (he/she locked = lauk)
locust – þramstei (f. N)
lodging (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural)
Loki (myth.) – 1. *lauha (m. N) 2. *luka (m. N) ON Loki could derive from an earlier *Luka through a-shift (*Luka to *Loka to Loki), although, there does not appear to be any scholarly consensus on the etymology.
A Gothic *Lauka can be suggested as a naturalized loanword, (not as a derivative of a common proto-form, as this sidesteps the issue of etymological obscurity.) If a proto-form *Luka is assumed, then one would expect a Gothic form *Luka as well.
loin – hups (m. I)
lonely, to become – gaainan (III weak)
long – laggs (adj. A)
longerno ~ = ni þanaseiþs
longsuffering – usbeisnei (f. N)
look, to – 1. saihwan (V abl) 2. ~ around = ussaihwan (V abl), wlaiton (II weak)
loop – wruggo (f. N)
loot – *raupa (f. O)
lord – frauja (m. N)
lose, to (v.) – fraliusan (II abl) + dat
loss – sleiþa (f. O)
lot – 1. a ~ of = filu + gen 2. hlauts (m. A), ~ imma urran = he was chosen by lot
love – frijaþwa (f. O), brotherly ~ = broþrulubo (f. N)
love, to – frijon (II weak) + acc
Lucifer (n.) – auzawandils (m. A)
lump – daigs (m. Noun)
lust – lustus (m. U)
Luxemburg – (neol) *leitilabaurgs (f. Cons)
macaw – *mako (n. N) (based on how Old Tupi macavuana sounds)
Macedonia – Makaidonja (f. O)
Macedonian – Makidons (m. I)
machine – *sarwa (n. Wa)
madto be ~ = dwalmon (II weak)
madness – unfrodei (f. N)
magazine – *leihtos bokos (f. O plural)
Magdeburg – (neol) Magaþsbaurgs (f. Cons)
magic – lubjaleisei (f. N)
magical – *lubjaleis (adj. A)
magically – *lubjaleisaba
magnify, to (v.) – hauhjan (I weak i)
magpie – *ago (f. N)
maimed – gamaiþs (adj. A)
make-up – *smikwa (f. O) (Italian = smeco) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
male – 1. gumein (n. A) 2. gumakunds (adj. A)
malice – balwawesei (f. N)
man – 1. manna (m. Cons) (plural nom + acc = mans) (human in general) 2. guma (m. N) (masculine person) 3. wair (m. A)
mane (n.) (of horse) – 1. *fahs (n. A) 2. *mana (f. O)
manger – uzeta (m. N)
manifestationby ~ = bairhtein
mankind – manaseþs (f. I)
manlike – gumeins (adj. A)
manner – sidus (m. U), ~ of life = usmet (n. A)
mansion (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural)
mark – staks (m. I)
market – maþl (n. A) black ~ = swart (adj. A) maþl (n. A)
marmelade – *akranamimz (noun) miþ sakkara
marry, to (v.) – liugan (III weak)
marshall – *marhaskalks (m. A)
marvel, to (v.) – sildaleikjan (I weak i)
marvellous – sildaleiks (adj. A)
Marxism – *Marksismus (m. U)
Marxist – *Marksistus (m. U)
master (n.) – frauja (m. N)
matterdoesn’t ~ to me = mis wulþrais nist
maybe – aufto
me – 1. (Dat) mis 2. (Acc) mik
mead – *midus (m. U) (loanword in Ancient Greek)
meal – mats (m. I)
mean, to – 1. (to signify, what a word means) wisan, gaskeirjan (I) 2. (to intend to) munnan
means (n.)by all ~ = in allaim stadim
measure – 1. mitaþs (f. Cons.) 2. mitadjo (f. N)
measure, to – mitan (V abl)
meat – mimz (noun)
mechanical – *maikanikisks (adj. A)
mechanics – *maikanika (n. A plural)
media – 1. *maidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *meidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
mediator – midumonds (m. Nd)
meditate, to – sis siþon (II weak)
meet, to – wiþragaggan (III red) + acc.
member – 1. gadaila (m. N) (of group of people) 2. liþus (of body) 3. ~ of the tribe = inkunja (m. N)
memorial – gamunds (f. I)
memory – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
merciful – bleiþs (adj)
merciful, to be – bleiþjan (I weak i)
mercy – 1.bleiþei (f. N) 2. mildiþa (f. O) 3. gableiþeins (f. I/O)
message – waurd (n. A)
messenger – airus (m. U)
metal – 1. *maital (n. A) (W. E.) 2. *maitaleins (adj. A)
metallic – *maitaleins (adj. A)
microbiology – *leitilalibainileisei (f. N)
midst – midjis (adj. Ja)
might, to (v.) – magan (pret-pres) (used as a subjunctive)
mightier (comp.) – swinþoza (adj. A)
mightily – in mahtai
mighty (adj.) – mahtais (f. O) (literally: of might)
mile – rasta (f. O)
milk – miluks (f. Cons)
milky way – *milukswigs (m. A)
millstone – asiluqairnus (f. U)
mind – 1. gahugds (f. I) 2. aha (m. N) 3. hugs (m. Noun) (only occurs once) 4. of one ~ = samafraþjis (adj. Ja)
mine – *meina (f. O)
Minecraft – *meinakrafts (f. I)
minister – andbahts (m. A)
ministery – *andbahti (n. Ja)
minstrel – swiglja (m. N)
miracle – fauratani (n. Ja) (as a sign)
mirror – skuggwa (m. N)
miserable – arms (adj. A)
mistakento be ~ = sis silbin/silbon fraþjamarzeins wisan
mistletoe – *mistils (m. A)
moccasin – skohs (m. A)
mock, to – bilaikan (I red)
moderation – anawiljei (f. N)
modest – hrains (adj. I)
moisture – qrammiþa (f. O)
Moldavia – *muldawi (f. Jo)
monolingual (adj.) – *ainarazds (m./f. adj. A)
moon – mena (m. N), new ~ = fulliþ (noun)
monarchy (n.) – *ainaragini (n. Ja) (attested fidūrragini for tetrarchy)
Monday – *menins dags (m. A)
monkey (n.) – *apa (m. N)
month – menoþs (f. Cons), dat. Pl. = menoþum
money – 1. skatts (m. A)
moneychanger – skattja (m. N)
moral – godei (f. N)
moreno ~ = ni þanaseiþs (as in no longer, not anymore)
morning – 1. maurgins (m. Noun) 2. uhtwo (f. N)
morning-star – auzawandils (m. A)
mortality – *diwanei (f. N)
mortgage – wadi (n. Ja)
moth – *malo (n. N)
mother – aiþei (f. N), wife’s ~ = swaihro (f. N)
Mount of Olives (n.) – fairguni (n. Ja) alewjo
mountain – fairguni (n. Ja)
mourn, to – hiufan (II abl)
mourning – gaunoþus (m. U)
mouth – munþs (m. Noun)
move, to – 1. inwagjan (I weak j) (move someone to do something) 2. to be ~d away = afwagjan (I weak j)
movie – *film (n. A)
mr. – *Frauja (m. N)
mud – *abja (f. N)
mugwort – *bibauts
multilingual (adj.) – *filurazds (m./f. adj. A)
multimedia – 1. *managmaidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *managmeidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
multitude – 1. managei (f. N) 2. iumjo (f. N) 3. hiuhma (m. N)
murderer – manamaurþrja (m. N)
murmuring – birodeins (f. I/O)
music (n.) – saggweis (m. I, plur. only)
mustard (n.) – sinaps (indeclinable, gender unknown, but the Latin form sinapis from which it was borrowed was feminine)
muzzle, to – faurmuljan (I i weak) + acc
my – meins (possessive pronoun, always declined strongly)
mystery – runa (f. O)
mystical – *garunileiks (adj. A strong)
nail, to (v.) – ganagljan (I weak i)
naked – naqaþs (adj. A)
nakedness – naqadei (f. N)
name – namo (n. N) (plural nom = namna, plural dat = namnam)
napkin – aurali (n. Ja)
Naples – *Napleis (I)
narrate, to (v.) – spillon (II weak)
narrow – aggwus (adj. U)
nation – þiuda (f. O)
national – *innamarkeis (adj. Ja)
nature – wists (f. I), by ~ = wistai, wild by ~ = aljakuns (adj. A)
near – nehwa
necessity – andawizn (f. I)
neck – 1. hals (m. Noun) 2. halsagga (m. N)
needle – neþla (f. O)
neglecting – unfreideins (f. I/O)
neighbour – 1. nehvundja (m. N) 2. garazno (f. N) (female neighbour) , garazna (m. N) (male neighbour, in plural both genders)
neither – nih
nephew – 1. *nifa (m. N) (sister’s son) 2. *sauhtar (m. R) (brother’s son) (Reconstructed by Nelson Goering)
nest – sitls (m. A)
nest, to – *nistjan (I)
Netherlands – *niþralanda (n. A) (plural)
nettle – *nat(il)o (f. N)
network – *ganati (n. Ja)
neuron – *niuraun (n. A)
neutron – *niutraun (n. A)
never (adv.) – ni aiw
nevertheless – 1. iþ 2. ak (only after negation) 3. akei
nextthe ~ day = iftumin daga
new – niujis (adj. Ja)
newness – niujiþa (f. O)
news – spill (n. A)
Nibelungen – *hnibiluggos (m. A) (plural)
nickname – *ananamo (n. N)
nickname, to – ananamnjan (I i weak)
night – nahts (f. Cons), (in days and ~s = in dagam jah nahtam, normally dative plural is nahtim)
nightshirt – *nahtapaida (f. O)
niece – *nifts (f. I) (sister’s daughter) (Reconstructed by Nelson Goering)
Niord (myth.) – *Nairþus (m. U)
noble (adj.) – 1. godakunds (adj. A) 2. reikeis (adj. Ja) (Moreover in those days the nobles of Judah sent many letters unto Tobiah – jah in dagam jainaim managai weisun þize reikjane Iudaie)
nobody – ni manna (irr., see manna), ni hwashun (see hwas), ni mannahun (irr., see manna)
no one – ni manna (irr., see manna), ni hwashun (see hwas), ni mannahun (irr., see manna)
nothing – ni waiht (n. A)
nowhere – ni hwar (undeclined)
noiseto make ~ = auhjon (II weak)
nominative – *nominateibus (m. U)
north – 1. *naurþrs (m. A) 2. *naurþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *naurþana (+ gen), in the ~ = *naurþar (+ dat.), to the ~ = *naurþar (+ acc.) These adverbs could likely be used as pseudo-prepositions, the ablative with the genitive, the locative with the dative, and the allative with the accusative (cf. hindar – hindar – hindana):
theoretical examples:
qam naurþana landis ‘he came from the north of the country’
ist naurþar landa ‘he is in the north of the country’
gaggiþ naurþar land ‘he is going to the north of the country’

northwards – *naurþar
Norway – *Naurþrawigs (m. A)
noseto clear ones ~ = *snutjan
note, to (v.) – gatarhjan (I weak i)
noteable (adj.) – gatarhiþs (adj. A)
noteworthy (adj.) – gatarhiþs (adj. A)

nourish up, to – alan (VI abl)
novice – *niujasatiþs (part-perf)
now – nu
number – raþjo (f. N)
nymph – *nwmfe (indeclinable)
oath – aiþs (m. A)
obedience – ufhauseins (f. I/O)
obey (v.) – ufhausjan (I weak) (+ dat.)
oblivion – ufarmaudei (f. N)
observation (n.) – atwitains (f. I)
observe, to (v.) – witan (III) + dative
occasion (n.) – lew (noun) (dat. lewa)
Odin (n.) – *Wodans (m. A)
odour (n.) – dauns (f. I)
Oegir (myth.) – *Ogeis (m. Ja)
offend, to (v.) – afmarzjan (I i weak)
offer (v.) – 1. atbairan (IV abl.) 2. biudan (II abl)
office (n.) – andbahti (n. Ja), ~ of the priest = gudjinassus (m. U)
officer (n.) – andbahts (m. A)
official (adj.)court ~ / ~ person = *gardingus (m. U) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigothorum IX 2,8 & 2,9; XII 1,8)
offline (adj.) – *afganatjis (adj. Ja)
often (adv.) – ufta
oil (n.) – alew (n. A)
ointment (n.) – salbons (f. I)
old (adj.) – fairneis (adj. Ja)
oldness – fairniþa (f. O)
olive – alew
olive tree – alewabagms (m. A)
omnibus – *allakarrahago (f. N) (W.E.)
omnivore (n.) – *alaētja (m. N)
on – (place) ana + dat
once – 1. simle (in the sense: once upon a time) 2. ainamma sinþa (one time)
one – ains (adj. A strong) 2. sums (one of people, so: one man = sums manna)
online – *anaganatjis (adj. Ja)
only – 1. þatainei (conjunction) (used as in: I only want ..) 2. ainaha (adj. A weak), the ~ son = sunus ainaha
open, to – uslukan (II abl), (he/she opened = uslauk)
opening – usluk (n. A)
openly – andaugjo
operation (n.) – waurstw (n. A)
opinion (n.) – ragin (n. A)
oppose, to (v.) – andstandan (VI abl)
opposition (n.) – *andstass (f. I)
oppress, to – anapraggan (VII)
ooze – *abja (f. N)
or – 1. þau (choice between two things) 2. aiþþau (choice between multiple things and other uses then in 1)
ordain, to – satjan (I j weak)
order – 1. tewa (f. O) 2. wiko (f. N), to set in ~ = atgaraihtjan (I i weak)
order, to (v.) – raidjan (I weak i) rightly dividing the word of truth = raihtaba raidjandan waurd sunjos
ordered – 1. garaiþs (adj. A) 2. *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
orderly – gatewiþs (past-perf)
ordinance – garaideins (f. I/O)
origin – ussateins (f. I/O)
ornithology – *fuglaleisei (f. N)
Oslo – *Ansulauha
osteology – *bainaleisei (f. N)
Ostrogoth – *Austraguta (m. N)
Ostrogothic – *Austragutisks (adj. A)
otherwise – aljaleikos (adv)
our – unsar (posessive pronoun, always strongly declined)
outer – hindumists (adj. Superl.)
outside – uta, from the ~ = utana + gen
oven – auhns (m. Noun)
overcharge, to – anakaurjan (I weak i)
overshadow, to – ufarskadwjan (I i weak)
owl – *uggwilo (f. N) (little-uuuu)
ox – 1. auhsus (m. U) 2. auhsa (m. N) (only one occurence) 3. stiur (m. A)
page – *laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
paint, to – *faihjan (I weak i)
painting – *faiheins (f. I/O)
pair – gajuk (n. A)
palace – rohsns (f. I)
palm~ of hand = lofa (noun)
palm-tree (n.) – peikabagms (m. A)
pan – *patina (f. N) (W.E.)
pants – *broks (f. Cons.)
paper – *karta (f. O)
parable – gajuko (f. N)
parakeet – *psittakilo (f/n. N) (little parrot)
parchment – maimbrana (m. N)
parent – berusi (m. Ja)
parents – berusjos (m. Ja) (plural)
parliament (n.) – gafaurds (f. I) (attested for “supreme assembly”)
parrot – *psittakus (m. U)
part – dails (f. I)
partake, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
partiality – wiljahalþei (f. N)
participant – gamainja (m. N)
participate, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
participation – daila (f. O)
party – dulþs (f. I)
paschal feast (n.) – paska (f. indeclinable)
pass, to – usleiþan (I abl)
passover – 1. paska (feast) 2. pasxa (feast)
password – (neol) *gamotawaurd (n. A)
pastel – *wai(z)da (f. O)
pastry – *bakeins (f. I/O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
pasture – winja (f. Jo)
patch (n.) – plats (n.) (also piece of cloth)
path – staiga (f. O)
pathology – *siukaleisei (f. N)
patience – usþulains (f. I)
pay, to – 1. usgiban (V abl) 2. usgildan (V abl)
peace – gawairþi (n. Ja)
peaceable – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peaceful – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peacock – *pawa (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
peck, to (v.) – *pikon (II weak)
pedophilia – *barnalubo (f. N)
pedophile – 1. *barnalubja (m. N) (male) 2. *barnalubjo (f. N) (female)
penny – 1. assarjus (m. U) 2. kintus (m. U)
people – þiuda (f. O)
pepper (n.) – *pipr (n. A) (W. E)
perceive, to (v.) – gaumjan (I) + dat
perdition (n.) – fralusts (f. I)
perfect – 1. fullatojis (adj. Ja) 2. (adv) glaggwuba 3. fullawita (m. N)
perhaps (adv.) – aufto
perilous (adj.) – sleideis (adj. Ja)
perish, to (v.) – gadauþnan (IV weak)
perishing (n.) – riurei (f. N)
permission (n.) – *andlet (n. A)
permitted (adj.)it is ~ = binah
persecute, to (v.) – 1. usþriutan (II abl) 2. wrikan (V abl)
persecution (n.) – 1. wrakja (f. Jo) 2. wraka (f. O) 3. wrekei (f. N)
persecutor (n.) – wraks (m. Noun)
person (n.) – manna (m. N)
persuasion (n.) – gakunds (f. I)
pervert, to (v.) – inwandjan (I weak i)
Pharisee (n.) – Fareisaius (m. U/I)
Phenician – fwnikisks (adj. A)
philosopher – 1. handugs (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. handuga (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
phoenix – *fonfugls (m. A)
physician – lekeis (m. Ja)
pigeon (n.) – ahaks (f. ?)
pillar – sauls (f. I)
pillow – waggareis (m. Ja)
pinnacle – gibla (m. N)
pipe, to – swiglon (II weak)
piper – 1. *swiglonds (m. Nd) 2. *swiglondi (f. Jo)
pitchfork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
pitifully – *wainaho
pity, to – arman (III weak)
plague, to – balwjan (I weak)
plan – garehsns (f. I)
plant, to – satjan (I j weak)
pleasant – andanems (adj. A)
please, to – galeikan (III weak) + dat
pleasure – gabaurjoþus (m. U) in ~ = in azetjam
pledge, to – gawadjon (II weak)
plough – hoha (m. N)
plow, to – arjan (III red)
pluck, to – raupjan (I weak i), ~ it out! (imp.) – usstagg!
plumage – *fiþrahama (m. N)
poem – *liuþ (n. A)
poet – liuþareis (m. Ja)
poison – *aitr (n. A)
Poland – *Paulaland (n. A)
Polish – 1. *paulisks (adj. A)p
police – *wardjans (m. N, plural of wardja)
police officer – 1. *wardja (m. N) 2. *wardjo (f. N)
political – *paulitikisks (adj. A) (W. E.)
politician (n.) – *paúleitikus (m./f. U)
politics – *paulitika (f. O) (W. E.)
pomp – wulþus (m. U)
pope – *papa (m. N)
pork – *sweinamimz (noun)
porter – 1. daurawards (m. A) 2. daurawarda (f. O)
Portugal – *Paurtukaljis (m. Ja)
possess, to – gastaldan (VII)
possessedone ~ with devils = daimonareis (m. Ja)
possession – gafreideins (f. I/O)
possible (adj.) – mahteigs (adj. A)
post – *waurd (n. A) (in forum or blog)
pot – 1. *aurkjus (m. U/I) 2. *aurkeis (m. Ja)
potter – kasja (m. N)
pour, to – giutan (II abl)
power – mahts (f. I)
praise, to – hazjan (I weak j)
pray, to – bidjan (V abl irregular), he/she prayed = baþ
prayer – bida (f. O)
preach, to – merjan (I i weak)
preacher – merjands (m. Nd)
preaching – mereins (f. I/O)
precept – anabusns (f. I)
predestinate, to – fauragaraidan (abl red) (he/she predestinated = fauragarairoþ)
preeminence – frumadei (f. N)
preferable – þishun
pregnant woman – 1. inkilþo (f. N), being great with a child, to be pregnant = wisandei inkilþo 2. qiþuhafto (f. N)
prejudice – faurdomeins (f. O)
preparation – manwiþa (f. O)
prepared – manwus (adj. U)
present – 1. anahaimeis (adj. Ja) (at home) 2. andwairþs (adj. A) (something which is happening in the present)
present, to – atsatjan (I i weak j)
presentation – *atsateins (f. I/O)
preserve, to (v.) – bairgan (III abl)
presbytery – praizbwtairei (f. N)
presider (liturgies) – faurstasseis (m. Ja)
press, to – anatrimpan (III abl)
pretence – inilo (f. N)
prevent, to – warjan (I weak j)
price – wairþ (m. A)
pride – hauhhairtei (f. N)
priest – gudja (m. N), chief ~ = ufargudja (m. N)
prince – reiks (m. Cons.)
principality (n.) – *Prigkipātus (m. U)
print, to – *usmeljan (I i weak)
printer – *usmeljo (f. N)
priority – frumadei (f. N)
prison – karkara (f. O)
prisoner – bandja (m. N)
privacy – *sundraleikei (f. N)
private – *sundraleiks (adj. A strong)
privately – sundro
privy – *gaggs (m. A)
prize – sigislaun (n. A)
progress – framgahts (f. I)
problem – aglo (f. N)
produce, to – usbairan (IV abl.)
profit – bota (f. O)
profitable – 1. batizo (adv.) 2. bruks (adj. A)
project – *faurawaurpa (f. O) (reconstructed by Tom de Herdt)
promise – gahait (n. A)
proof – kustus (m. U) ( as in a challenge)
prophesy, to (v.) – praufetjan (I weak i)
prophet – praufetes (m. U/I)
prostitute – kalkjo (f. N)
prostitution – kalkinassus (m. U)
protect, to (v.) – bairgan (III abl)
proton – *protaun (n.)
proud – hauhþuhts (adj. A)
proud-hearted – hauhhairts (adj. A)
prove, to (v.) – kiusan (II abl.) + acc.
provide, to – garedan (abl red) (Garedandans auk goda = Providing for honest things)
provoke, to – ushaitan (I red)
prudence – inahei (f. N)
Prussian – *prūsa (m. N) (people)
psalm (n.) – psalmon (noun) (dat. plur. = psalmom)
psychiatrist – 1. *pswkiatreija (m. N) 2. *pswkiatreijo (f. N)
psychiatry – *pswkiatreia (f. O)
psychological – *ahaleis (adj. A)
psychologist – 1. *ahaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *ahaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
psychology – *ahaleisei (f. N)
publican – motareis (m. Ja)
puff, to~ up = ufblesan (IV red)
pugnacity – þrasabalþei (f. N)
pull – *tauhts (f. I)
pull, to~ down = atdragan (VI abl)
pulling – *tauhts (f. I)
punishment – andabeit (n. A)
pupil (n.) – siponeis (m. Ja) (synonyme of disciple)
purity – hrainei (f. N)
purple – paurpuroþs (part-perf)
purpose – muns (m. I)
pursuer (n.)~ of goals = tilarīds (m. A) (from Gothic inscription on spearhead of Kowel, West Ukraine)
push, to~ aside = afskiuban (II)
put, to – lagjan (I weak j), ~ on = gahamon (II weak) + dat
pyjamas – *nahtapaida (f. O)
pyramid – *pwramis
quantum-mechanics – *kwantum-maikanika (n. A plural)
queen – *þiudana (f. O)
question – sokns (f. I)
quick (adj.) – qius (adj. A)
quickly (adv.) – sprauto (adv.)
quiet, to be – afdumbnan (IV weak) (qaþ du marein: gaslawai, afdumbn! = Said unto the sea: Peace, be still)
rabbi – rabbei (undeclined)
race – spaurds (f. Cons.) (Sports)
radio – 1. (neol) *luftustibna (f. O) 2. *radio (f. N) (loan)
ragnarökr – *ragine riqis (n. A)
rain, to (v.) – rignjan (I weak i), to let rain = rignjan (I weak i)
rainbow – *rignabuga (m. N)
raise, to (v.) – urraisjan (I weak i)
ranked – *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
ransom – andabauhts (f. I)
rather – maizuþ-þan (or rather are known of God, Gal. 4:9 = maizuþ-þan gakunnaidai fram guda)
rationality – gafraþjei (f. N)
raven – *hrabns (m. A)
ray – *strela (f. O)
read, to – 1. (us)siggwan (III) 2. (Greek) anakunnan (III)
realize, to (v.) – andþagkjan sik (acc.) (+ gen.) (irr., I weak)
really – bi sunjai
reap, to – sneiþan (I abl)
rear, to (v.) – aljan (I weak)
reason – gafraþjei (f. N) (rationality, faculty of reason)
reason, to (v.) – þagkjan (I weak i)
reasonable – 1. andaþahts (adj. A) 2. *andaþahtaba (adv)
rebuke, to – andbeitan (I abl)
receive, to – 1. niman (IV abl), 2. miþniman (iV abl)
receiving – andanumts (f. I)
recommendation – anafilh (n. A)
recompense – andalauni (n. Ja)
recompense, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
reconcile, to~ with = gafriþon (II weak) + dat
reconciliation – gafriþons (f. I)
red – rauþs (adj. A)
redeem, to (v.) – usbugjan (I weak j)
redemption – uslauseins (f. I/O)
reed – raus (n. A)
refrigerator – *koljo (f. N) (lit. Cooler)
regard, to – aistan (unspecified verb)
regardskind ~ = (rec.)
liubostons goleinins

region – fera (f. O)
register, to – anameljan (I)
registration – anameleins (f. I)
reign, to – 1. fraujinon (II weak) + dat, ~ as a king = þiudanon (II weak), ~ over = fraujinon/þiudanon ufar + dat.
reject, to – 1. uskiusan (II abl) 2. andspeiwan (I abl)
rejoice, to – sifan (III weak)
rejoicing (n.) – hwoftuli (f. Jo)
relate, to (v.) – spillon (II weak) (synonyme of to narrate)
related – *samakuns (adj. I/Ja) (as in related in family, blood, group, by tribe)
relationship (n.) – sibja (f. Jo)
release, to – fraletan (red abl) (to release a person, release unto someone)
remain, to – bileiban (I)
remember, to – gamunan (pret-pres) + gen.
remembrance – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
remnant – laiba (f. O)
remission – aflageins (f. I/O)
renew, to – ananiujan (I weak)
renounce, to (v.) – afqiþan (V strong)
repay, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
repent, to – idreigon (II weak), gaïdreigon (II weak)
repentance (n.) – idreiga (f. O)
reproach – idweit (n. A)
reproof – gasahts (f. I)
republic (n.) – *Rēspūblika (f. O)
reputation (n.)to be of ~ – þuhts (past part.) wisan
request – bida (f. O)
researcher – *sokareis (m. Ja)
resist, to (v.) – andstandan (VI abl.)
resistance (n.) – *andstass (f. I)
rest – 1. gahweilains (f. I) 2. rimis (n. A)
restriction – gaaggwei (f. N)
resurrection – 1. usstass (f. I) 2. urrists (f. I) (only once)
reveal, to – andhuljan (I i weak j)
revelation – andhuleins (f. I/O)
revelling – gabaur (m. A)
revenge, to – fraweitan (I abl)
reverence, to (v.) – aistan (verb)
revile, to – laian (abl red) (they reviled = lailoun)
reward – 1. laun (n. A) 2. mizdo (f. N)
reward, to – usgildan (III abl.)
Reykjavik – *Raukiweika (f. O) (W.E.)
rich – gabigs (adj. A) (rich of = gabigs in + dat)
riches – 1. gabei (f. N) 2. faihu (n. U)
right (adj.) – *taihsws (adj. A) (Thomas Lambdin)
right (n.)~ side = taihswo (f. N)
righteousness – garaihteins (f. I/O)
rightly (adv.) – raihtaba (adv.)
ring – 1. figgragulþ (n. A) 2. *hriggs (m. A) (can be used for form of a ring)
ring fight – brakja (f. Jo) (wrestling)
rip – gataura (m. N) (rip of garment)
rise, to – ushlaupan (II red) (as in a person going to stand)
river – ahwa (f. O)
rivulet (n.) – rinno (f. N)
roe-deer – 1. *raiha (m. N) 2. *raihs (m. A)
robot – 1. *skalks (m. A) 2. *mahtiskalks (m. A)
rock – hallus (m. U)
rocket – *rukka (f. O)
rod – wandus (m. U)
roll, to~ away = afwalwjan (I i weak)
Roman (adj.) – *Rumonisks (adj. A)
Roman (n.) – Rumonus (m. U/I)
Romania (n.) – *Dakia (declined as f. O)
Romanian (adj.) – *Dakisks (adj. A)
Romanian (n.) – *Dakus (m. U/I)
Rome – Ruma (f. O)
roof – hrot (n. A)
room – heþjo (f. N), large upper ~ = kelikn (n. A) mikilata (adj. A), to have ~ = gamotan (pret-pres)
rooster – hana (m. N)
root – waurts (f. I)
rope – *sail (n. A)
Rosicrucian – *rausakrukeis (m. Ja)
round – *hriggaleiks (adj. A)
router – rannja (m. N)
row – wiko (f. N)
rub, to – bnauan (V red)
rule – garaideins (f. I/O) (as in a rule, a guideline to be followed)
ruler – fraujinonds (m. Nd)
run, to – rinnan (III abl), ~ over = ufargiutan (II abl)
Russia – *Rusaland (n. A)
Russian – 1. *Rus (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Rusisks (adj. A)
rust – nidwa (noun)
rye – *rugs (m. I)
sabbat – sabbatus (m. U), the day after ~ = afarsabbatus (m. U)
sackcloth – sakkus (m. U)
sacred – weihs (adj. A)
sacrifice – 1. hunsl (n. A) 2. sauþs (m. I)
sacrifice, to – hunsljan (I weak i)
sad – gaurs (adj. A)
safely – arniba
safety – þwastiþa (f. O)
sail, to – farjan (I j weak)
saint – weiha (m. N)
salt – salt (n. A)
salt, to – saltan (III red)
salute, to (v.) – goljan (I weak i)
salutation – goleins (f. I/O)
salvation – 1. naseins (f. I/O) 2. ganists (f. I)
same – sama (adj. A, weak), at the ~ time = samana
sanctify, to – gaweihan (III weak)
sand – malma (m. N)
sapphire – *saffeirus (m. U)
satanism (n.) – *satanismus (m. U)
satanist (n.) – *satanistus (m. U)
satisfied (adj.) – saþs (adj. A)
satisfying (n.) – soþa (noun)
Saturday (n.) – sabbato (undeclinable)
save, to – nasjan (I j weak)
say, to – qiþan (V abl) + dat
saying (n.) – *qiss (f. I)
scale (n.) – *skāla (f. O)
scare, to (v.) – usagjan (I weak j)
scatter, to (v.) – distahjan (I j weak)
scheme, to (v.) – bruggwōn (II weak) (in a bad sense, as in to make evil plans)
science of syntax (n.) – *satileisei (f. N)
school – 1. *skaula (f. O) 2. *skola (f. O)
scorpion – skaurpjo (f. N)
screen (n.) – *skairms (m. A / m. I)
scrip – matibalgs (m. I)
Scythian – Skwþus (noun m. U?)
sea (n.) – 1. marei (f. N) 2. marisaiws (m. Noun)
seal (n.) – 1. sigljo (n. N) 2. *sailhs (m. A) (animal)
seal, to (v.) – faursigljan (I i weak)
search (n.) – sokeins (f. I/O)
season (n.) – mel (n. A)
season, to – gasupon (II weak)
secret (n.) – 1. runa (f. O) 2. analaugns (adj. A) in ~ = in analaugnein
secretly (adv.) – analaugniba
security (n.) – þwastiþa (f. O)
see, to (v.) – saihwan (V abl.)
seed (n.) – fraiw (n. A)
seek, to (v.) – sokjan (I weak i)
seem, to (v.) – þugkjan (I weak i), it ~s to me = þugkeiþ mis
seismology (n.) – *reiraleisei (f. N)
seize, to (v.) – grepan (I)
self (adj.) – silba (adj. A, weak)
send, to (v.)~ away = fraletan (red abl) (fralet þo managein = Send the multitude away)
sender – *sandja (f. O)
sentence (n.) – *sats (m. I)
seperate (adj.) – afskaidans (past-participle)
seperate, to – afskaidan (I red) (to seperate oneself from), ~ from = afskaidan af + dat.
seperation (n.) – afskaideins (f. I/O)
sepulchre – hlaiw (n. A)
servant – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. þiumagus (m. U) (young boy) 3. magus (m. U) (a young boy) 4. (Servants) þewisa (n. A)
serve, to – 1. skalkinon (II weak) + dat 2. andbahtjan (I i weak) + dat
service – 1. skalkinassus (m. U)
settle, to (v.) – gatulgjan (I weak i)
severity – hwassei (f. N)
sex – samakuns (adj. I) (in lustau)
shadow – skadus (m. U)
shake, to – 1gawagjan (I weak) 2. ushrisjan (I weak j) (shake off the dust under your feet = ushrisjaiþ mulda þo undaro fotum izwaraim)
shame – aiwiski (n. Ja)
shameful – agls (adj. A)
sharply – hwassaba (as in severely)
shave, to – 1. kapillon (II) 2. biskaban (VI)
sheath – fodr (n. A)
sheepfold – awistr (n. A)
shekel – sikls (m. Noun)
shelter – *haribairgo (f. N)
shepherd – hairdeis (m. Ja)
shewing – ustaikneins (f. I/O)
shield – skildus (m. U)
shilling – skilliggs (m. A)
shine, to – glitmunjan (I i weak), ~ round = biskeinan (I abl)
shining – *blaiks (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
ship – skip (n. A)
shipwreckto suffer ~ = usfarþon taujan us skipa
shirt – paida (f. O)
shit – 1. maihstus (m. U) 2. smarna (f. O)
shoe – skohs (m. A)
shoe-latchet (n.) – skaudaraips (*m. A)
shoes – gaskohi (n. Ja)
shore (n.) – *stranda (f. O)
stop (n.) – maþl (n. A)
short – maurgus (adj. U)
shortage – waninassus (m. U)
shorten, to – gamaurgjan (I)
shoulder – 1. ams (m. A) 2. amsa (m. N) (Only occurs once)
show, to – ataugjan (I i weak) (person/object to whom shown = dat., shown person/object = acc.)
sick – siuks (adj. A)
sickle – gilþa (f. O)
sickness – siukei (f. N)
sign – 1. taikns (f. I) 2. bandwa (f. Wo) 3. bandwo (f. N)
sign, to = ufmeljan (I) + dative
signature – *ufmeleins (f. I/O)
silence – þahains (f. I) , in ~ = in hauniþai (f. O)
similar – galeiks (adj. A)
simplicity (n.) – allawerei (f. N)
sin – frawaurhts (f. I)
Sinai (n.)mount ~ = fairguni (n. Ja) Seina (dat. = Seinai)
sincerity – 1. unriurei (f. N) 2. unwammei (f. N) 3. hlutrei (f. N)
sing, to~ for someone = liuþon (II weak) + dat
singer – liuþareis (m. Ja)
singleness – ainfalþei (f. N)
Sion – Sion (noun)
sister – swistar (f. R)
sit, to – sitan (V abl)
skull – hwairnei (f. N)
slanderer – diabula (f. O)
slaughter – slauhts (f. I) (the act of slaughter)
Slav – *Sklabens (m. A) (W.E.)
slave – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. (house-servant) þius (m. U)
slavery – 1. skalkinassus (m. U) 2. þiwadw (noun)
Slavic – *Sklabenisks (adj. A)
slay, to – afslahan (VI)
sleep, to – slepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = saislep), to fall asleep = anaslepan (IV red)
sleight – filudeisei (f. N)
slip, to (v.) – sliupan (II abl)
Slovakia – *Slaubakja (f. O)
Slovakian – 1. *Slaubakus (m. U/I) 2. *Slaubakiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Slaubakisks (adj. A)
small – leitils (adj. A)
smaller – minniza (Comp.)
smear, to – gasmeitan (I)
smell – dauns (f. I)
smite, to (v.) – stautan (red II)
smooth – slaihts (adj. A)
snake – waurms (m. A)
snare – wruggo (f. N)
snot, to – *snutjan
snow – snaiws (noun)
snowman – snaiwsmanna (m. N)
soap – *saipjo (f. N) (W. E.)
sober – gafaurs (adj. I)
sobriety – inahei (f. N)
soft – hnasqus (adj. U)
softly – *hnasquba
soldier – gadrauhts (m. I)
solitary – auþeis (adj. Ja)
somebody – sums (adj. A, masc. or fem.)
someone – sums (adj. A, masc. or fem.)
son – sunus (m. U)
son-in-law – megs (m. Noun)
song – liuþ (n. A)
soon – sprauto, so ~ = swa(swe) sprauto
sore (n.) – *banja (reconstructed by Magnus Snaedal) (ON. ben, OE. benn, OS. [beni-])
sorrow – 1. gauriþa (f. O) 2. sair (n. A)
soul – saiwala (f. O)
sound – drunjus (m. U)
soup – *bruþ (n. A)
south – 1. *sunþrs (m. A) 2. *sunþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *sunþana, in the ~ = *sunþar, to the ~ = *sunþar These adverbs could likely be used as pseudo-prepositions, the ablative with the genitive, the locative with the dative, and the allative with the accusative (cf. hindar – hindar – hindana):
theoretical examples:
qam sunþana landis ‘he came from the south of the country’
ist sunþar landa ‘he is in the south of the country’
gaggiþ sunþar land ‘he is going to the south of the country’

southwards – *sunþar
sow, to – 1. saian (abl red) 2. insaïan (abl red)
sower (n.) – saiands (pres-part)
space – rum (n. A), to have ~ = gamotan (pret-pres)
Spain – *Heispanja (f. O)
Spanish – 1. *Heispaniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Heispanisks (adj. A)
spare, to (v.) – freidjan (I weak i) + acc. (once attested with genitive instead of accusative: sparing you = freidjands izwara)
speak, to~ evil of = anaqiþan (V abl)
spear – *gais (m. A)
spearow – sparwa (m. N)
spectacle – fairweitl (n. A)
speech (n.) – *qiss (f. I) (dat. and gen. have double “s”, dat. = qissai)
speed (n.) – *sprautei (f. N) (abstract noun)
spend, to – fraqiman (IV)
sperm – *fraiw (n. A)
spikenard – nardus (m. U)
spilled, to be – usgutnan (IV weak)
spin, to (v.) – spinnan (III)
spirit – ahma (m. N) (Spirit from God or a human, for ghost, see ghost)
spiritual – ahmeins (adj. A)
spit, to – gaspeiwan (I abl)
spittle – speiskuldra (noun)
spleen – *miltja
spoil, to (v.) – andhamon (II weak) + dat (And having spoiled principalities and powers = andhamonds sik leika, reikja jah waldufnja)
sponge – swamms (m. A)
spoon – *spenus (m. U) (W.E.)
spring, to – keinan (I abl) (of seed), and the seed shall spring = jah þata fraiw keiniþ
spy – ferja (m. N)
spy, to – biniuhsjan (I weak i)
stablish, to – tulgjan (I i weak)
staff – hrugga (f. O)
stairs – *usstaiga (f. O) (W.E.)
stake – 1. hnuþo (f. N) 2. *staka (m. N)
stallion – *hahists / *hangists (m. N)
stand, to – standan (VI abl) ~ with = miþwisan (unspecified verb)
star – stairno (f. N)
startled, to be – gaþlahsnan (IV weak)
state – reiki (n. Ja)
stature – wahstus (m. U)
stave – walus (m. U)
steal, to – stilan (IV abl)
stedfast – tulgus (adj. U)
stedfastly – *tulguba
steel – stahl(s) (m., n. A) (W.E.)
steep~ place – driuso (f. N)
steward – fauragaggja (m. N)
stewardship – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
sting – gazds (m. A)
stinking – fuls (adj. A)
stir, to – gawagjan (I weak)
establish, to (v.) – stiurjan (I weak i)
Stockholm – *Stukkahulms (m. A)
stone – stains (m. A), corner ~ = waihstastains (m. A)
stone, to (v.) – stainam wairpan (III abl)
stony – stainahs (adj. A)
stop, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (to stop something or someone else) , not ~ = ni hweilan (III weak)
store (n.) – maþl (n. A)

storm – skura (f. O), wind~ = skura windis, fire~ = *skura funins
stork – *udafara (m. N) (W.e.)
story – 1. spill (n. A) 2. insahts (f. I)
straight (adj.) – raihts (adj. A)
straightway – sunsaiw
strait – aggwus (adj. U)
stranger – 1. gasts (m. I) 2. aljakuns (adj. I)
street – 1. gatwo (f. N) 2. plapja (f. O)
strength – swinþei (f. N)
strengthen, to (v.) – gaswinþjan (I weak i)
stretch, to – 1. fairrinnan (III abl.) (mitaþ fairrinnandein und jah izwis = a measure to reach even unto you) 2. ufrakjan (I weak j) (used for hands)
strife – 1. sakjo (f. N) 2. ~ of words = waurdajiuka (f. O)
strike, to – *bautan (VII abl)
striker – slahals (m. Noun)
stripe – slahs (m. I)
strive, to (v.) – 1. usdaudjan (I weak i) 2. sakan (VI abl)
strong – swinþs (adj. A)
stronger – swinþoza (Comp.)
student – siponeis (m. Ja)
stumblingblock (n.) – bistugq (n. A)
sturgeon (n.) – staurjo (f. N)
subconscious – *ufgahugds (f. I)
subculture – *minniza (comp.) kunjahaidus (m. U)
subject – 1. *ufwaurpa (f. O) 2. to be ~ to ordinances = urredan (abl red) (hwa þanaseiþs swe qiwai in þamma fairhwau urrediþ? = why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances)
subjection – 1. ufhaiseins (f. I/O), 2. ufhnaiweins (f. I/O), to bring into ~ = anaþiwan (III weak)
subverting – uswalteins (f. I/O)
such – swaleiks (adj. A strong)
suck, to – 1. daddjan (I weak i) 2. *sugan (II abl) m
suddenly – anaks
sue, to – staua (f. O) niman (IV abl.)
suffer, to – (ga)winnan (III abl)
suffering – winno (f. N)
sufficienty – ganauha (m. N)
sugar – *sakkar (n. A) (W.E.)
suit, to – gatiman (IV)
summer – asans (f. I)
summit (n.) – 1. (meeting) gaqumþs (f. I)
sun – 1. sunno (f. N) 2. (Only used once) sauil (n. A)
Sunday – *sunnins dags (m. A)
superfluous – ufjo
superscription – ufarmeleins (f. I/O)
supper – nahtamats (m. I)
supply – andstald (n. A)
supply, to – andstaldan (III red)
suppose, to – munan (pret-pres)
surely – arniba
surmising – anaminds (f. I)
surpass, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
surround, to – bisatjan (I j weak)
Surtur (myth.) – *Swartus (m. U)
swamp grass – *ahms (m. A)
Swede – *Sweja (m. N)
Sweden – *Swejaland (n. A)
swear, to – swaran (VI abl)
sweep, to (v.) – *baugjan (weak)
sweet – sutis (adj. I) (most forms went over into -ja declension,
sweetly – *sutiba (adv)
swelling – ufswalleins (f. I/O)
sword – 1. hairus (m. U)
sycamine tree – bairabagms (m. A)
symbology – *taiknileisei (f. N)
synagogue – swnagoge (f. Noun)
syntax (n.) – *sats (m. I)
Syria – 1. Saurja (f. O) (gen. Saurais) 2. Swria (f. O)
Syrian – (m.) Saur (m. U/I), (f.) Saur
tabernacle – 1. hliþra (f. O) 2. hlija (m. N)
table – 1. biuþs *(m. A) (table to eat) 2. mes (n. A) (table for working) 3. writing ~ = spilda (f. O), ~ of stone = spilda (f. O) staineina (adj. A)
tablet – spilda (f. O)
tag – (online) sokjawaurd (n. A)
tail – *spaurds (m. A)
take, to – 1. niman (IV abl), ~ from = afholon (II weak), ~ out = usniman (IV abl) 2. to take (by hand) = fairgreipan (I abl), ~ part in = fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
talk, to – rodjan (I i weak)
tapas – *tappos (f. O) (plural)
taste, to – kausjan (I i weak) + acc
tax – 1. gild (n. A) 2. gilstr (n. A)
taxing – gilstrameleins (f. I/O)
tea – *hairbata (f. O) (W. E.)
teach, to – 1. laisjan (I i weak) 2. talzjan (I i weak)
teacher – 1. laisareis (m. Ja) 2. talzjands (m. Nd)
tear – gataura (m. N) (tearing of garment)
tear, to – *tiran (IV), ~ apart = *tiran (IV) (loanword in Asturian)
telegraph – (neol) fairramelja (m. N)
telephone – 1. *razdasandja (f. O) 2. *stibnasandja (f. O) (lit. voice-transmitter) 3. *stibnjo (f. Jon) (lit. voicer) 4. *sandja (f. O) (lit. sender)
telescope – *fairrasiuns (f. I)
television – 1. *siunisandja (f. O) (lit. image-transmitter) 2. *manleikasandja (f. O) 3. *siunjo (f. Jon) (lit. sighter) 5. *manleikjo (f. Jon) (lit. Imager)
temperance – gahobains (f. I)
temple – alhs (m. Cons)
temporal – riureis (adj. I/Ja)
tempt, to – 1. fraisan (I red) 2. usfraisan (I red)
temptation – fraistubni (f. Jo)
tender – þlaqus (adj. U)
tent – hleiþra (f. O)
terrify, to (v.) – ogjan (I weak i)
terror – agis (n. A)
test – kustus (m. U)
testify, to (v.) – weitwodjan (I weak i)
testimony – 1. weitwodiþa (f. O) 2. weitwodei (f. N)
tetrach – fidurragini (n. Ja)
thank, to – awiliudon (II) + dat.
thankful – awiliudonds (II weak) + dat.
thanks – awiliuþ (n. A)
that – 1. þata 2. (Conj.) þatei, ei (as in: I see that I ….) 3. so ~ = ei … + opt 4. (Dem. Pron.) see: this
the – (Only used in emphasis or comparison and after a noun is used for the first time), see: this
theft – þiubi (n. Ja)
their – 1. (m.) ize 2. (f.) izo
them – im (dat.), ins (m. Acc.), ija (n. / f. Acc.)
themselves – to ~ = du sis misso
then – þannu (used in an abstract sense in a conclusion, like in: if… then = þande … þannu)
theocracy (n.) – 1. *þaíaúkratia (f. Jo) 2. reiki (n. Ja) gudis
theological – *gudleis (adj. A)
theologist – 1. *gudleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *gudleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
theology – *gudleisei (f. N)
theory – *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O)
there – jainar
thereafter – afar þata
therefore – þannu (so then)
thief – hliftus (m. U)
think, to – 1. miton (II weak) 2. hugjan (I) (to suppose)
thirst – þaurstei (f. N)
thirtieth – *þrijatiguda (comp.)
this – 1. sa (m. Nom.), þata (n. Nom. / Acc.), so (f. Nom.), þis (m./n. Gen.), þizos (f. Gen.), þamma (m./n. Dat.), þizai (f. Dat.), þana (m. Acc.), þo (f. Acc.)
thorn – þaurnus (m. U)
thornbush (n.) – aihwatundi (f. Jo)
thought – mitons (f. I)
thousand – þusundi (f. Jo)
thousandth – * þûsundida (comp.)
thrash – maihstus (m. U)
thread – *þredus (m. U)
threat – hwota (f. O)
threaten, to – gahwotjan (I weak)
threatening – hwota (f. O)
three – þreis (adj. A strong)
throne (n.) – stols (m. A)
Thursday – *þunaris dags (m. A)
Tiberian – Tibairiadeis (m. U/I)
time – 1. mel (n. A) (moment) 2. sinþ (n. A) (always with dative, e.g. two times = twaim sinþam), at the same ~ = samana, at this ~ = bi þamma mela
title – ufarmeli (n. Ja)
tittle – striks (m. I)
Tiw – *Teiws (m. A)
to – du + dative
today – himma daga
toe – *tains (m. A)
together – samana
toilet – *gaggastaþs (m. I)
token – bandwo (f. Wo)
tomb (n.) – hlaiwasna (f. O) (only found in plural)
Tokyo – (neol.) Tokio (f. N)
tolerable – sutis (adj. I)
tomorrow – gistradagis
tongue – tuggo (f. N)
too – 1. jah (synonym of also) 2. ufar- (too much = ufarfilu)
tooth – tunþus (m. U)
torch (n.) – hais (noun)
touch – *atsnarpeins (f. I/O)
touch, to – 1. attekan (V red abl) (he/she touched = attaitok) 2. atsnarpjan (I i weak) 2. rahton (II weak) (symbolically)
towel – *þwahilo (f. N) (W. E.)
tower – kelikn (n. A)
tradition – anafilh (n. A)
traffic – *fara (f. O)
train – *tauhts (f. I)
transfiguration – *inmaideins (f. I/O)
transfigure, to – inmaidjan (I i weak)
transgressor (n.) – missataujan (as a pret. pres.) (I make myself a transgressor, Gal. 2:18 = missataujandan mik silban ustaiknja)
translate, to – gaskeirjan (I)
translator – gaskeirja (m. N)
translation – gaskeireins (f. I/O)
transmitter – *sandja (f. O)
travel, to – wraton (II weak)
tread, to – trudan (IV abl)
treasure – huzd (n. A)
treat, to~ shamefully = ganaitjan (I weak)
trembling (n.) – reiro (f. N)
trespass – missadeþs (f. I)
tribulation – agliþa (f. O)
tribute (n.) – gild (n. A)
trip – wratodus (m. U)
triumphant – hroþeigs (adj. A)
troll – *trallu (n. U) (Reconstructed by Grimm)
trouble – aglo (f. N)
trouble, to – 1. usþriutan (II abl) + dat 2. drobjan (I weak i)
true – sunjeins (adj. A)
trust, to – gatrauan (III weak)
truth – sunja (f. O)
tsar – *kaisar (m. A)
Tuesday – *Teiwis dags (m. A)
tumult – 1. auhjodus (m. U) 2. drobna (m. N)
turkey (bird) – *pawahana (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
turn, to – 1. wandjan (I weak i) (Matt 5:39 turn to him the other also. – wandei imma jah þo anþara.) 2. ~ away = afwandjan (I weak i)
turnip – 1. *rap (n. A) 2. *rapa (f. O) 3. *naps (m. A)
turtle – *taistudo (f. N) (W.E.)
turtledove – hraiwadubo (f. N)
tutor – ragineis (m. Ja)
tweet – *tweit (n. A)
twelve – twalif (gen. = twalibe, dat. = twalibim)
twentieth – *twatiguda (comp.)
two – twai (adj. A strong)
ty – tigjus (m. U) (suffix for decades 20-60)Tyr – *teiws (m. A)
Tyva (Russian Republic) (n.) – *Twba (f. O)
unbelief – ungalaubeins (f. I/O)
unborn – unbaurans (part-perf)
uncertain – unwiss (adj)
uncircumcision – faurafilli (n. Ja) (it. For-skin)
uncle – 1. *fadurja (m. N) (father’s brother) 2. *awahaims (m. I) / *auhaims (m. I) (mother’s brother) (Reconstructed by Nelson Goering)
uncleanness – 1. unhrainiþa (f. O) 2. unhrainei (f. N)
uncover, to (v.) – andhuljan (I weak j)
uncovering (n.) – andhuleins (f. I/O)
under – uf + dat
underground – *ufgrundus (m. U)
underpants – *ufbroks (f. Cons.)
understand, to (v.) – fraþjan (abl. VI) + dat.
understanding – 1. frodei (f. N) 2. fullaweis (adj. A)
underworld – *uffairhwus (m. U)
undisputed – unandsakans (part-perf)
undress, to – andwasjan (I j weak)
ungodliness – afgudei (f. N)
unisex – gamains (adj. A)
United States – *Amairika (f. O)
unity – ainamundiþa (f. O)
university – 1. *mikila skaula (f. O) 2. *mikila skola (f. O)
unjust – 1. inwinds (adj. A) 2. inwindiþos (f. O) (the adjective unjust is formed with the genitive singular of inwindiþa, meaning unrighteousness)
unlearned – untals (adj. A)
unleavened – unbeistjoþs (past-perf)
unless – sware
unmarried – 1. unqeniþs (part. perf.) (only used for men) 2. unliugaiþs (past-perf)
unmoveable – ungawagiþs (part-perf)
unprepared – unmanwus (adj. U)
unrighteousness – inwindiþa (f. O)
unsearchable – unfairlaistiþs (past-perf)
unspeakable – unqeþs (adj. I/Ja)
unthankful – launawargs (adj. A)
unwashen – unþwahans (past-perf)
uproar – drobna (m. N)
urinate, to – *meigan (I)
urine – *hland (n. A)
urology – *hlandaleisei (f. N)
use, to – brukjan (I weak i) + gen
use up, to – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
useful – bruks (adj. I)
username – (neol) *atgagganamo (n. N), see name for exceptions in the declension
vail – hulistr (n. A)
valhalla – *walahalla (f. O), cf. OE heall (fem. o-stem), OS & OHG halla (fem. o-stem), and ON höll (fem. o-stem)
valley – dals (m. Noun)
valkyrie – *walakusjo (f. N)
value – wairþ (n. A)
value, to – wairþon (II weak)
Vandal – *wandals (m. A)
vanish, to – gataurnan (IV weak)
vanity – uswissi (n. Ja)
vassalthe ~ of the king = *þiufaþs (m. I)
veal – *kalbamimz (noun)
vegetarian (n.) – 1. *grasaētja (m. N) 2. *grōniētja (m. N)
veil – faurhah (n. A)
vengeance – fraweit (n. A), ~ is mine = mis fraweit leitaidau
Venus – auzawandils (m. A)
verily – amen (Matt 5:18 For verily I say unto you – amen auk qiþa izwis)
very – 1. filu 2. abraba (stronger than filu)
vessel – kas (n. A)
victorious – hroþeigs (adj. A)
victory – sigis (n. A)
video – *film (n. A)
viking – *weikiggs (m. A)
vine – weinatriu (n. Wa)
vineyard – weinatriu (n. Wa)
violent (adj.) – abrs (adj. A)
virgin magaþs (f. I)
virginity – magaþei (f. N)
virtue – godei (f. N)
visible – anasiuns (adj. I)
Visigoth – *Wistraguta (m. N)
Visigothic – *Wistragutisks (adj. A)
visit, to – gaweison (II weak) + gen.
visitation – niuhseins (f. I/O)
vivid – *gaheis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
voice – stibna (f. O)
wade, to – *wadan (reconstructed by J.G. Quak)
wag, to – wiþon (II weak)
wage (n.) – laun (n. A)
wagon – 1. *karrahago (f. N) (latinized Gothic word) 2. *karrs (m. A)wait, to – beidan (I abl) + gen. (Waiting for the kingdom of God = beidands þiudangardjos gudis; thing waited for is in the genitive)
wagon-hedge (n.) – *karrahago (f. N) Ammianus Marcellinus (31,7.7 and 12.11) gives a Latinized Gothic word ‘carrago’ = *Karrahago (fem. n-stem), seemingly ‘wagon-hedge’, in his description of the westward migration of Goths in the face of Hunnic invasion, wherein Fritigern’s Tervingi employed a fortified circle of wagons to protect themselves against surprise attacks and long-range missiles, hence the ‘hedge’. It played a conspicuous role in the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD. The word appears to be a compound of a stem *karra- ‘wagon, cart’ and hago ‘haw’.
wake up, to (vb.) – gawaknan (IV weak)
Wales – *Walhaland (n. A)
walk, to – hwarbon (II weak)
wall – baurgswaddjus (f. U) (literally: city-wall, for another kind of wall use waddjus (f. U) seperately)
walrus – *haursahwals (n. A)
want, to – wiljan (unspecifief verb) (present tense conjugated like the optative present form)
war – *badus (m. U), second world ~ = anþar (adj. A strong) fairhwubadus (m. U), to go to ~ = driugan (II weak)
warfare – drauhtinassus (m. U), to go on ~ = drauhtinon (II weak)
warmth – *warmei (f. N)
wary – *war (adj. A)
wasp – *wapso (f. N)
waste – fraqisteins (f. I/O)
watching – wokains (f. I)
water – wato (n. N), pl. Nom. = watna, pl. Gen. = *watne, pl. Dat. = watnam, pl. Acc. = watna, white- ~ / rapids = stainaha watna
wave – wegs (m. A)
way – 1. wigs (n. A) (way on a land), rough ~ = usdrusts (f. I) 2. haidus (m. U) (way to do something)
weak – unmahteigs (adj. A)
weapon – 1. *wepna (n. A) (plural) 2. *sarwa (m. N)
weary (adj.) – usgrudja (adj. A),be not ~ = ni wairþaiþ usgrudjans; to lose faith = wairþan usgrudjans
weather – *wiþr (n. A)
Wednesday – *wodanisdags (m. A)
week – 1. sabbato (f. N) 2. wiko (f. N) (attested only once)
weekend – *sabbatons andeis (m. Ja)
weep, to – gretan (abl red) (he/she wept = gaigrot)
weeping – grets (m. A)
weight – kaurei (f. N)
weighty – kaurus (adj. U)
well – waila
Welsh – 1. *walhiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Walhisks (adj. A)
Welshman – *walhs (m. A)
werewolf – *wairawulfs (m. A)
west – 1. *wistrs (m. A) 2. wistra- (adj.), from the ~ = *wistana, in the ~ = *wistar, to the ~ = *wistar
westwards – *wistar
wet – *nats (adj. A)
what – 1. (int) hwa 2. (relative pronoun) see which
whatsoever – þishwah
wheat – hwaiteis (m. Ja)
wheel – 1. *raþ (n. A) (dat. Sing. raþa) 2. *hwai(h)l (n. A)
when – 1. (int.) hwan 2. þan (can never be used in initial position) 3. þanuh
where – 1. (int.) hwar 2. þarei (in phrases which aren’t questions, in the sense of: the place where = staþs, þarei)
whether – ei, ~ … or = jaþþe … jaþþe
while – 1. hweila (f. O) 2. miþþanei (With contrast, used as in: I was here, while he was there. Ik was her, miþþanei is was jainar.)
whilst – biþe
whip – *laittug
white – hweits (adj. A)
white, to – hweitjan (I i weak)
who – 1. (int.) (m. Nom.) hwas, (f. Nom.) hwo 2. (Who as relative pronoun, the person who ..) (m. Nom.) Saei, (n. Nom.) þatei, (f. Nom.) soei/sei (sei is used more frequently then soei)
whole – alls (adj. A)
wholly – allandjo (indecl)
whore – kalkjo (f. N)
whoredom (n.) – horinassus (m. U)
whosoever – hwazuh saei (masc. nom. sing. form)
why – 1. (interr) duhwe 2. (interr) hwa þatei 3. (confirmative), that’s why = in þis, in þizei
wicked – unsibjis (adj. Ja)
wickedness – unselei (f. N)
wide – braiþs (adj.)
widow – widuwo (f. N)
width – braidei (f. N)
wife (n.) – qino (f. N)
wild (adj.) – 1. haiþiwisks (adj. A) (food or product which is from the wild)
wilderness – auþida (f. O)
wildly – wilþiba
will – wilja (m. N)
will, to (v.) – haban (III weak) + verb (the future tense in Gothic is formed by the verb haban + the verb), for would + verb you use the past subjunctive tense of a verb in Gothic, e.g. I would do = tawidedjau
willingly – us lustum
wind – winds (m. A)
window – augadauro (n. N)
wine – wein (n. A), berry ~ = basjawein (n. A), given to ~ = weinnas
wineservant – *skagkja (m. N)
wing – *fiþrahama (m. N) A likely form for ‘wing’ in Gothic would be ‘*fiþrahama’ (masc. n-stem), literally ‘feather-covering,’ cf. ON ‘fjaðrhamr’ (‘winged haunch’), OE ‘feðerhama’ (‘wings, plumage’), OS ‘fedarhamo’ (‘wings, plumage’).
winter – wintrus (m. U)
wipe, to~ out = afswairban (III)
wisdom – 1. handugei (f. N) 2. frodei (f. N)
wise – 1. handugs (adj. A) 2. froþs (adj. A)
wisely – frodaba
witch – *haljaruna (f. O)
witchcraft – lubjaleisei (f. N)
with – miþ + dat
withdraw, to – ufsliupan (II abl)
without – 1. inuh + acc 2. utana + gen (from the outside)
withstand, to – andstandan (VI)
witness – 1. weitwoþs (m. Root)
wizard – *lubjaleis (m. A)
woad – *wai(z)da (f. O)
Wodan – *Wodans (m. A) (masc. a-stem; from Proto-Germanic *Wôdanaz / Wôdinaz)
woe – O woe = wai
wolf – wulfs (m. A)
woman – qino (f. N) foolish ~ = qineins (n.)foolish ~ = qineins (n.)
womb – 1. qiþus (m. U) 2. kilþei (f. N) (occurs only once)
wonderful (adj.) – sildaleiks (adj. A)
wood – triu (n. Wa)
wooden – *triweins (adj. A)
woodpeaker – *paih(t)s (m. A)
woods – *widus (m. U)
word – waurd (n. A)
word order (n.) – *sats (m. I)
work – waurstw (n. A)
worker – gawaurstwa (m. N)
working – waurstwei (f. N) (not labour by men but doing something)
world – 1. fairhwus (m. U) 2. midjungards (m. I) (the world where people live)
worm – maþa (m. N)
wormhole – *waurmaþairko (f. N)
worse – 1. wairsiza (comp.) 2. wairs
worship, to – blotan (V red)
worshipper – 1. *blostreis (m. Ja), ~ of God = gudblostreis (m. Ja) 2. *blostreisa (f. O)
worshipping – 1. blotinassus (m. U) 2. skalkinassus (m. U)
worthy (adv) – wairþaba
wrap, to – biwindan (III abl)
wrath (n.) – 1. þwairhei (f. N) 2. moþs (m. A) 3. hatis (n. A)
wretched (adj.) – arms (adj. A)
write, to – meljan (I) + dat
writer – 1. bokareis (m. Ja) 2. *bokari (f. Jo)
yellow – 1. *gilws (adj. Wa) 2. *gulws (adj. Wa)
Yiddish – 1. *Idiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo) 2. *Jidiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo)
yoke – juk (n. A)
younger – minniza (Comp.), only in: The elder serves the ~ = sa maiza skalkinoþ þamma minizin
your – 1. (sing) (both informal and formal) þeins (posessive pronoun, always declined strongly) 2. (dual) iggqar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly) 3. (plural) izwar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly)
youth – junda (f. O) (someones youth)
yule – *jiul (n. A)
zeal – aljan (n. A)
zeitgeist – *aldiwists (f. I)
zionism – *Sionismus (m. U)
zionist – *Sionistus (m. U)
zoological (adj.) – *diuzaleis (adj. A)
zoologist (n.) – *diuzaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *diuzaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
zoology (n.) – *diuzaleisei (f. N)

 

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