English-Gothic dictionary

English to Gothic dictionary

Dictionary PDF download (last update 28-9-2018)

Download PDF of Spanish-Gothic edition

Thanks to Ulfovaldo for providing the Spanish translation.

This list contains attested words and words reconstructed by linguists. This dictionary is especially written for writing in Gothic, therefore stems are included.​ This dictionary currently contains 2253 English lemmas.

Abbreviations

acc. = accusative
adv. = adverb
dat. = dative
int. = interrogative (questions)
voc. = vocative
W.E. = reconstructed by Wolfram Euler
n. = noun
v. = verb
+ = neologism (these are words which didn’t exist when the Goths lived.)
* = reconstruction
Greek = direct translation of original Greek, highly unlikely genuine Gothic

 

Initial position means the first place in a phrase, in “The man is here.”, ‘the’ is in the initial position.

Just like in normal dictionaries, ~ means a repetition of the main word. So if you look up Gothic and find “2. *~ language”, the ~ means Gothic.

Here are some tips when using Gothic:

All -us nouns are masculine, except for faihu (n.) (Property) and reconstructed *alu (n.) (Beer) and handus (f.) (Hand), kinnus (f.) (Cheek), baurgswaddjus (f.) (Wall) and asiluqairnus (f.) (Millstone).

The declensions of the nouns are:

In order of: nom. sing, gen. sing, dat. sing, acc. sing, voc. sing, nom. plur., gen. plur., dat. plur., acc. plur., voc. plur.

m. A = -s, -is, -a, -, -, -os, -e, -am, -ans, -os
n. A = -, -is, -a, -, -, -a, -e, -am, -a, -a
f. O = -a, -os, -ai, -a, -os, -o, -om, -os, -os

When saying for instance “It is beautiful”, you use the n. Declension (Skaun ist).

When more translations are available, the most prevalent is given first.

a – (English article, is untranslated)
abandoned – ainakls (adj. A)
abbreviation (n.) – *maurgeins (f. I/O)
ability (n.) – mahts (f. I)
able – mahteigs (adj. A)
abolish, to (v.) – blauþjan (I weak i)
abolished, to be – gataurnan (IV weak)
abolishment (n.) – *blauþeins (f. I/O)
abominable (adj.) – andasets (adj. I)
abound, to – ufarassau haban (III weak)
about – 1. bi + acc (about him) 2. swe (about two miles)
above – ufaro
absent (adj.) – afhaimeis (adj. Ja) (far from home)
abstinence – gahobains (f. I)
abundance (n.) – 1. ufarassus (m. U) 2. ufarfullei (f. N) 3. digrei (f. N)
abuse (n.) – *anamahts (f. I)
abuse, to (v.) – anamahtjan (I)
abuser (n.) – *anamahtjands (m. Cons.)
abyss (n.) – afgrundiþa (f. O)
accept, to (v.) – andsitan (V abl) (to accept an abstract concept, God accepteth no man’s person = guþ mans andwairþi ni andsitiþ)
acceptation (n.) – andanumts (f. I)
accepted (adj.) – andanems (adj. I)
access (n.) – atgagg (n. A)
according – ~ to = afar + dative
account (n.) – 1. *rahneins (f. I/O) (online) 2. raþjo (f. N)
accusation (n.) – 1. fairina (f. O) 2. wrohs (f. I)
accusative (n.) – *akkusateibus (m. U)
accustomed (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
act (n.) – gadeþs (f. I)
adapted (adj.) – biuhts (adj. A)
add, to – anaaukan (II red) (add up to)
adjure, to (v.) – biswaran (VI abl)
admired, to be – sildaleiknan (IV weak)
adoptation (n.) – sibja (f. Jo)
adoption (n.) – frastisibja (f. Jo)
adorn, to – fetjan (I i weak)
adult – uswahsans (pret-pres)
adulterer (n.) – hors (m. A)
adulteress (n.) – *horo (f. N)
adultery (n.) – horinassus (m. U) to commit ~ = horinon (II weak)
advance (n.) – framgahts (f. I)
advantage (n.) – bota (f. O)
adversary (n.) – 1. andastaua (m. N) (in court) 2. andastaþjis (m. Ja)
advertisement (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advertising (n.) – *+hazeins (f. I/O) (W.E.)
advice (n.) – ragin (n. A)
affection (n.) – 1. winna (f. O) 2. winno (f. N)
affliction (n.) – wunns (f. I)
afraid (adj.) – faurhts (adj. A)
after – afar + dat/acc (in locative it’s the dative, temporal form uses either dative or accusative)
again – aftra
against – 1. wiþra + acc 2. over~ = wiþrawairþs (adj. A)
aged – 1. sineigs (adj. A) (as in old) 2.  framaldrs (adj. A) (well stricken in years.)
aggressiveness (n.) – þrasabalþei (f. N)
ago – faur + dat.
agree, to – waila hugjan (I weak) + dat (person/thing agreed with is in dative), sijais waila hugjands andastauin þeinamma = agree with thine adversary
agreement (n.) – samaqiss (f. I)
aim (n.) – mundrei (f. N)
air – luftus (m. U)
airplane – *luftuskip (n. A)
alienated – framaþeis (adj. Ja) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)
alienated, to be – framaþjan (I weak i) + gen (being alienated from the life of God = framaþjai libainais gudis)
alm (n.) – armaio (f. N)
almighty (n.) – allwaldands (m. Nd)
all – alls (adj. A strong), not at ~ = ni allis
allegoric – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
allegorical – aljaleikoþs (part-perf)
alone (adj.) – ains (adj. strong)
along – and + acc
allow, to (v.) – andletan (red. abl.)
alphabet (n.) – 1. *bokatewa (f. O) 2. *azgabairka (f. O) (lit. Ash-birch, the first two letters of the Gothic alphabet, but bokatewa should be used for other alphabets)
alphabetical – *bokateweis (adj. Ja)
always – sinteino
already – ju
altar – hunslastaþs (m. I)
altruism (n.) – *broþrulubo (f. N)
altruist (n.) – 1. *broþrulubja (m. N) 2. *broþrulubjo (f. N)
amazed, to be – afslauþnan (IV)
amazement (n.) – usfilmei (f. N), ~n dissitan = to be amazed
amber (n.) – 1. *glas (n. A) 2. *gles (n. A)
amber route (n.) – 1. *glasawigs (m. A) 2. *glesawigs (m. A)
amen – amen
American – 1. +Amairikisks (adj. A) 2. +Amairikus (m. U/I) (citizen)
anarchism (n.) – +anarxismus (m. U)
anarchist (n.) – +anarxistus (m. U)
anarchistic – +anarxists (adj. A)
answer (n.) – andahafts (f. I)
and – 1. jah 2. -uh (Can only be used after verbs and names)
angel (n.) – aggilus (m. U/I)
anger (n.) – moþs (m. A)
angle (n.) – *skina (f. O)
angry – ~ on = modags (adj. A) + dat, to be ~ on = hatizon (II weak) + dat
anguish (n.) – aggwiþa (f. O)
anoint, to – gasmeitan (abl I)
anonymous – *unnamniþs (past. part. as adj.)
another (adj.) – anþar (adj. A) (Only declined strongly)
answer (n.) – 1. andahafts (f. I) 2. andawaurdi (n. Ja)
answer, to – 1. andhafjan (VI) + dat
ant (n.) – *miurjo (f. N)
Antiochia (n.) – Antiaukia (f. Noun, declined as O)
anthropological – +mannaleis (adj. A)
anthropologist (n.) – 1. +mannaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. +mannaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
anthropology (n.) – +mannaleisei (f. N)
any – 1. ~ man = mannahun (first part declined as manna)
anymorenot ~ = ni þanaseiþs
apostle (n.) – apaustaulus (m. U/I)
apostleship (n.) – apaustaulei (f. I)
apparel – gafeteins (f. I/O)
appearing – gabairhteins (f. I/O)
appetizer – *tappa (f. O)
approach, to – anaqiman (IV)
Arabia – Arabia (f. Undeclined)
archangel – arkaggilus (m. U/I)
arkenstone – *airknastains (m. A)
armour – sarwa (n. Wa)
army – harjis (m. Ja), highest division of Visigothic ~ in Hispania = *þiufa (f. O)
aroma – *aroma (pl. *aromata) (n. A) (W.E.)
arranged – garaiþs (adj. A)
arrive, to – atfarjan (I j weak) (arrive in a land)
arrow – arhvazna (f. O)
art – skaun (r. Ja) waurstw (n. A), skaun waurstw
artificial – 1. *handuwaurhts (past perf.) 2. *mannawaurhts (past perf.)
artemisia – *artaimisja (f. O)
ash – azgo (f. N)
ashamed – 1. to be ~ = gaaiwiskon (II weak) 2. skaman (III weak) + gen
Asia – Asia (f. O)
ask, to – fraihnan (V abl)
asleep – to fall ~ = anaslepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = anasaizlep)
aspersion – ufarranneins (f. I/O)
ass – assilus (m. U) (synonyme of donkey)
assumption – anaminds (f. I)
astonished, to be – usgeisnan (IV weak)
astrobiological – *stairnalibainileis (adj. A)
astrobiologist – 1. *stairnalibainileis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnalibainileisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astrobiology – *stairnalibainileisei (f. N)
astrological (adj.) – *stairnaleis (adj. A)
astrologist (n.) – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astrology (n.) – *stairnaleisei (f. N)

astronomer – 1. *stairnaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *stairnaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
astronomical – +stairnaleis (adj. A)
astronomically – +stairnaleisaba
astronomy – +stairnaleisei (f. N)
attack, to – gasokjan miþ *wepnam (m. A)
Athens – Aþeineis (m. U/I) (lit. Athenians, but the plural form of a people was used to refer to a place too.)
attract, to (v.)</ – atþinsan (III)
auger – *nabagais (m. A)
austere – hardus (adj. U)
Austria – +australand (n. A)
author – bokareis (m. Ja)
authority (n.) – waldufni (n. Ja), by what ~ = in hwamma waldufnje
avenger – *fraweitands (m. Nd)
await, to (v.) – beidan (I)
awake, to (v.) – gawaknan (IV weak) 2. usskarjan (I weak j) (awake from something bad, power from evil)
aware, to be – miþwitan (pret-pres) (for I know nothing by myself = nih waiht auk mis silbin miþwait)
axe – aqizi (f. Jo)
Babylonia – *Babwlaun
backwards – afta
bag – balgs (m. I)
Balder (myth.) – *baldrs (m. A)
ball – *balla (m. N)
balloon – +bauljo (f. N)
balsam – balsan (n. A)
ban, to (v.) – uswairpan (III abl)
banish, to (v.) – uswairpan (III abl)
bank – skattjans (m. N) (plural of skattja (moneychanger) means a bank)
banker – 1. *skattja (m. N) 2. *skattjo (f. N)
banquet – dauhts (f. I)
baptism (n.) – daupei (f. N)
baptist – daupjands (m. Nd)
baptize, to (v.) – daupjan (I weak i)
bar – ans (m. A)
barbarian – barbarus (m. U/I)
barely – halisaiw
barley – barizeins (adj. A), ~ loaf = barizeins hlaifs (m. A) cooked ~ = *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
barn – bansts (m. I)
barrel – *barils (m. A)
barren – stairo (f. N)
basket – tainjo (f. N)
battle – waihjo (f. N)
beach – staþ (n. A) / staþs (m. A)
beam – ans (m. A)
bean – *bauna (f. O)
bear – *baira (m. N)
bear, to – bairan (IV)
beat, to (v.) – 1. stautan (II red) 2. bliggwan (III abl) 3. *biutan (II)
beautiful – skauns (adj. I/Ja)
beautifully – *skauniba
because – 1. duþe 2. unte (Only in initial position.) 3. ~ of = in + gen
bed – ligrs (m. A)
bedroom – (neol) badiheþjo (f. N) / (neol) slepaheþjo (f. N)
bee – *biwa (f. Wo)
beer – *alu (n. U), barley ~ = barizalu (n. U), black ~ = swartalu (n. U), wheat ~ = hvaitjalu (n. U), white ~ = hveitalu (n. U)
before – 1. faurþis 2. faurþizei + subjunctive (only used after a comma)
beg, to (v.) – bidjan (V)
beggar – bidagwa (m. N)
beginning – anastodeins (f. I)
behave, to (v.) – ~ badly = aiwiskon (II weak)
behaviour – usmet (n. A)
behind – afta
behold – sai
Belarus – +Hweitarusaland (n. A)
Belarussian – 1. +Hweitarus (m. A) (citizen) 2. +Hweitarusisks (adj. A)
Belgian – 1. *Bailgus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Bailgisks (adj. A)
Belgium – *Bailgaland (n. A)
Belgrade – +Hveitabaurgs (f. Cons)
belief – galaubeins (f. I/O)
believe, to (v.) – galaubjan (I weak i) + dat, ~ in = galaubjan du + dat
bench – *banks (m. I)
bend, to (v.) – *lutan (II strong) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
benefit – wailadeþs (f. I) (good deed)
Beroia – Bairauja (f. Noun, declined as O)
berry – basi (n. Ja)
Bethlehem – Beþlaihaim (nom. Beþlaihaim gen. Beþlaihaimis)
betray, to (v.) – fralewjan (I weak)
better – 1. batiza (comp.) 2. usiza (comp.) (Preferable)
between – miþ + dat, ~ the two borders = miþ tweihnaim markom
bewail, to (v.) – flokan (V red)
bewitch, to (v.) – afhugjan (I weak)
bicycle – 1. *raþjo (f. Jo) (lit. Wheeler) 2. *bainjo (f. Jo) (lit. Legger) 3. *fotjo (f. Jo) (lit. Footer) 4. *eisarnamarhs (m. A) (lit. Iron-horse)
big – mikils (adj. A)
binary – 1. *tweihnai (adj. A) (plural, meaning both) (W.E.) 2. *twafalþs (adj. A) (W.E.)
biological – *libainileis (adj. A)
biologist – 1. +libainileis (m. A) (declined like adjective) 2. +libainileisa (f. O) (declined like adjective)
biology – +libainileisei (f. N)
birch – *bairka (f. O)
bird – fugls (m. A)
birth – gabaurþs (f. I)
bisexual – 1. *alalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 2. *twalustja (m. N) (bisexual man) 3. *alalustjo (f. N) (bisexual woman) 4. *twalustjo (bisexual woman)
bishop – aipiskaupus (m. U), office of a ~ = aipiskaupei
bitch – 1. *hundi (f. Jo) 2. *hundjo (f. N) 3. *bikjo (f. On) 4. *tauho (f. N)
bitcoin – (neol) *bitkaujn (n. A)
bite, to (v.) – beitan (I abl)
bitter – baitrs (adj. A)
bitterness – baitrei (f. N)
black – swarts (adj. A)
blackbird – *amslo (f. N)
blame, to (v.) – 1. anawammjan (I i weak) 2. andbeitan (I abl) 3. fairinon (II weak)
blameless – ungafairinoþs (past-perf)
blank – *bas (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
blasphemy – 1. wajamerei (f. N) 2. wajamereins (f. I/O)
blend, to (v.) – blandan (III red)
bless, to (v.) – þiuþjan (I i weak)
blessed – audags (adj. A)
blessedness – audagei (f. N)
blessing – þiuþeins (f. I/O)
blind – blinds (adj. A)
blinded, to be – afdaubnan (IV weak) (ak afdaubnodedun fraþja ize = but their minds were blinded)
block, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (as in to block the way)
blog – *blaug (n. A)
blogger – 1. *blaugja (m. N) (male blogger) 2. *blaugjo (f. N) (female blogger)
blow, to – waian (red abl)
blue – 1. *blews (adj. A) 2. *blaus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
blueberry (n.) – *blewabasi (n. Ja)
Bluetooth (n.) – 1. *blewatunþus (m. U) 2. *blutuþ (n. A) (as a loanword from English)
boar – *bais (m. A)
board (n.) – baurd (n. A)
boast, to – hwopan (V red)
boaster – bihaitja (m. N)
boasting – hvoftuli (f. Jo)
bodily – leikeins (adj. A)
body – leik (n. A)
bold, to be – anananþjan (I i weak)
boldness – balþei (f. N)
bond – kunawida (f. O)
bondage (n.) – þiwadw (noun, acc. form), to bring into ~ = gaþiwan (III weak)
bordel – 1. kalkjarazn (n. A) 2. *kalkjahus (n. A)
border – marka (f. O)
border, to – gamarkon (II weak)
bough *bogus (m. U) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
boundary – marka (f. O)
born, to be – wairþan (III)
borrow, to – leihvan (I abl)
bosom – barms (m. I)
bow – *buga (m. N)
bow, to – biugan (II abl)
box – arka (f. O)
boy (n.) – magus (m. U)
branch – 1. asts (m. A) 2. tains (m. A)
bread – hlaifs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms), light ~ = hwaitahlaifs (m. A), brown ~ = swartahlaifs (m. A), wheat ~ = hwaitjahlaifs (m. A)
break, to – dishniupan (II abl)- he brake the bands = dishniupands þos bandjos, ~ free/ forth / loose = tarmjan (I weak i)
breast – brusts (f. Cons.)
breastplate – brunjo (f. N)
breath – *aþana (m. N)
bridegroom – bruþfaþs (m. I)
bridge – 1. *bruddi (f. Ja) 2. *bruwja (f. Ja)
bring, to – attiuhan (II abl) (to bring a person)
broad – rums (adj.)
brook – rinno (f. N)
brother – broþar (m. R), ~s = broþrahans (m. N)
brotherly love – broþrulubo (f. N)
brown – *bruns (adj. A) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
bruise, to – gamalwjan (I weak)
bubble – *bauljo (f. N)
build, to – timrjan (I j weak) ~ upon = anatimrjan (I weak i)
building – gatimrjo (f. N)
Bulgaria – *Bulgarja (f. O)
Bulgarian – 1. *Bulgarus (m. U/I) 2. *Bulgariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Bulgarisks (adj. A)
burden – kauriþa (f. O)
burial – gafilh (n. A), day of burying = dags (m. A) gafilhis
burn, to – intundnan (IV weak), tundnan (IV weak) (intrans. perf., used as in to burn oneself, not to burn something or someone else, as in: I am burning = ik intundna, ik im intundnands)
bury, to – ganawistron (II weak) (perf.)
bus – 1. *aumnibus (m. A/m. U) 2. *wigaskip (n. A)
bush – bramble ~ = aihvatundi (f. Jo)
bushel – mela (m. N)
business – to do ~ = kaupon (II weak)
butcher – skilja (m. N)
butter – 1. *ankwa (m. N) 2. *smairw (n. A) 3. *butwr (n. A) 4. *butwraun (loan from Greek)
butterfly – 1. *feifalþra (f. O) 2. *feifaldra (f. O)
button – *haubidilo (n. N) (lit. little head)
buy, to – bugjan (I weak j)
byte – *bajt (n. A)
cabbage – *kauls (m. A)
cacao – *kakaw (n. A)
cake – *koka (f. O)
calf – 1. stiur (m. A) 2. kalbo (f. N) (female calf which is under one years old and which hasn’t got calves yet)
call, to – atlaþon (II weak)
calm – wis (n. A) (of water)
cam (n.) – *kam (n. A)
camel – ulbandus (m. U)
camera (n.) – *kamaira (obskura) (f. O)
camp – bibaurgeins (f. I/O)
can, to – magan (pret-pres)
cancer – gund (n. A)
candlestick – lukarnastaþa (m. N)
capital city – *haubidabaurgs (f. Cons)
captivity – hunþs (m. A)
car – *karrs (m. A)
carbon – *kul (n. A)
card – *karta (f. O)
cardboard – *kartabaurd (n. A)
cardiological – *hairtaleis (adj. A)
cardiologist – 1. *hairtaleis (m. A) (declined as adjective) 2. *hairtaleisa (f. O) (declined as adjective)
cardiology – *hairtaleisei (f. N)
care – kara (f. O), he ~s about .. = .. (gen) imma kara ist, to take ~ of = gakaron (II weak) (perf.), to ~ for = karon (II weak)
carefully – us gaþagkja
carp – *karpa (f. O)
carpenter – timrja (m. N)
carry, to – bairan (IV), ~ away = miþgatiuhan (II abl)
cast, to – ~ down = afdrausjan (I i weak), ~ away = afskiuban (II abl) + dative, ~ off = afskiuban (II abl) + dat
casualness – latei (f. N)
catalogue – *katalaugus (m. U)
catamite – *magulus (m. U)
cathedral – *aipiskaupaus aikklesjo (f. N) 2. *kaþaidral (n. A)
Catholic – *allagalaufs (adj. A) (Based on Old English “eallgeleaflic”)
Catholicism – *allagalaubeins (f. I/O)
cauldron – *hwair
cause (n.)for this ~ = duþþe
cautious – *war (adj. A)
cautiously – *waraba
cease, to – sweiban (i abl) , not ~ = ni hweilan (III weak)
celestial body – tuggl (n. A)
cell – 1. *kailla (f. N) 2. heþjo (f. N)
Celt – *Kailts (m. A) (W.E.)
Celtic – *Kailtisks (adj. A)
centurion – hundafaþs (m. I)
century – *jerahund (m. A)
certain – sums (adj. A)
chaff – ahana (f. O)
chair – sitls (m. A)
chamber – heþjo (f. N)
change – inmaideins (f. I/O)
change, to – 1. inmaidjan (I i weak) 2. ~ into = ingaleikon (II weak)
charitably (adv.) – bi friaþwai
cheek – kinnus (f. U)
cheerfulness – hlasei (f. N)
cheese – 1. *justs (m. A) 2. *kaseis (m. Ja)
chicken – hana (m. N)
child – barn (n. A)
childhood – barniski (n. Ja)
childish – barnisks (adj. A)
chiliarch – *þiufaþs (m. I) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigotorum II, 1,16 and 1,27)
chocolate – *kakawamats (m. A)
Christ – Xristus (m. U)
christmas – weiha (adj. A) nahts (f. Cons.), weiha nahts
chromosome – *xromasoma (n. A) (nom. Pl. *xromasomata) (W.E.)
chupacabra – 1. *gaitisugja (m. N) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson) 2. *gaitisugjo (f. N) (female chupacabra)
church – aikklesjo (f. N)
cigarette – *sigaraita (f. O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
Cilicia (n.) – Kileikia (gen. Kileikiais)
cinder – azgo (f. N)
cinema – 1. *filmarazn (n. A) 2. *filmahus (n. A)
circle – *hriggs (m. A)
circumcise, to – bimaitan (I red)
circumcision – bimaita (f. O)
citizen – baurgja (m. N)
citizenship – kawtsjo (f. N)
clamour – hrops (m. A)
clay – þaho (f. N)
cleansing – gahraineins (f. I/O)
clear – skeirs (adj. I) (as in clearly understanding)
clearly – *skeiriba (adv) (as in clearly understanding)
climb, to~ up into = ussteigan (I abl)
cloak – inilo (f. N)
clock – *horaulaugi (n. Ja) (based on the word for a time-keeping device in Latin, hōrologium, from the Greek word hōrológion)
cloke – hakuls (m. Noun)
close – nehva (near) + dat
close, to~ a book = falþan (III red) bokos (f. O)
closer – nehvis
closet – heþjo (f. N)
clothe, to – gawasjan sik (I weak)
cloud – milhma (m. N)
coal – hauri (n. Ja), glowing ~ = *brasa
coat – paida (f. O)
cock – hana (m. N) (male hen)
coffee – *kahwa (f. O) (W. E.)
coin – skatts (m. A)
cold – kalþs (adj. A)
collect, to (v.) – huzdjan (I i weak)
collection (n.) – huzd (n. A)
collectively – alakjo
colony – niujaland (n. A) (W.E.)
colt – fula (m. N)
comb – *kambs (m. A)
comb, to – *kambjan (ei)
come, to – qiman (IV abl)
coming – qums (m. I)
comfort – gaþrafstei (f. I/O)
comfort, to – 1. anaþrafstjan (I weak) 2. gaþlaihan (I red)
comforter – parakletus (m. U) (Greek)
comfortless – widuwairna (m. N)
command, to – anabiudan (II abl)
commanderthe ~ of the highest division of the Visigothic army (þiufa) = *þiufaþs (m. I)
commandmend – anabusns (f. I)
comment – *waurd (n. A)
commit, to (v.) – gatrauan (III weak) (As in, commit in trust. For commit as in dedication, commit oneself to something, see strife, to)
commonwealth – usmet (n. A)
communicate, to (v.) – 1. ussakan (VI abl.) + dat for persons or acc for things 2. gamainjan (I weak i)
communication – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
communism – 1. *gamainalaiseins (f. I/O) 2. *gamaineins laiseins (f. I/O) 3. *kaumunismus (m. U)
communist – 1. *kaumunistus (m. U) 2. *gamainalaiseinja (m. N) 3. *gamainalaiseinjo (f. N)
communistic – *kaumunists (adj. A)
companion – gahlaiba (m. N)
compare, to – galeikon (II weak) + dat (dative is that to which is compared)
compassionto have ~ = infeinan (IV weak)
compell, to – baidjan (I weak i) + acc
concord – samaqiss (f. I)
concupiscence – gairuni (n. Ja)
condemnation – wargiþa (f. O)
conference (n.) – gaqumþs (f. I)
confess, to (v.) – andhaitan (red. I) + dat.
confirm, to – gatulgjan (I weak i)
confirmation – *gatulgeins (f. I/O)
congress (n.) – gaqumþs (f. I)
connectedly – gahahjo
conscience – 1. miþwissei (f. N) 2. þuhtus (m. U) 3. gahugds (f. I)
consent – gaqiss (adj. A)
consider, to (v.) – andsaihwan (V abl)
consist, to (v.) – ussatiþs (I weak j) wisan, and by him all things consist = jah alla in imma ussatida sind.
consolation – þrafsteins (f. I/O)
conspiracy – birunains (f. I) ~ theory = *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O) birunainais
conspirator – *birunands (m. Cons.)
conspire, to – birunan (III)
constrain, to (v.) – nauþjan (I weak i)
consume, to – fraqiman (IV abl) + dat
contain, to – haban (III weak)
container~ for transport = *barils (m. A)
contentto be ~ = ganohiþs (I weak i) wisan
continence – gahobains (f. I)
continual (adj.) – unhweila (adj. A weak)
contrariwise – wiþrawairþo
contrary – andaneiþs (adj. A)
convenient – gatils (adj. A)
conveniently – gatilaba
convent – *maunasteri (n. Ja) (W.E.)
convention – gaqumþs (f. I)
conversation – gawaurdi (n. Ja)
conversion – gawandeins (f. I/O)
cool – *kolus (adj. U)
Copenhagen – *Kaupahabana (f. O)
coppersmith – aizasmiþa (m. N)
corner – waihsta (m. N), ~ stone = waihstastains (m. A)
corporal – leikeins (adj. A)
corporeal – leikeins (adj. A)
correction – garaihteins (f. I/O)
corrupt, to – riurjan (I weak i)
corruption – riurei (f. N) (as in eternal destruction)
costly – galaufs (adj. A), very ~ = filugalaufs (adj. A)
cotton – *bagmawulla (f. O)
council – gafaurds (f. I), to take ~ = runa (f. O) gataujan (I)
counsel – to give ~ = garaginon (II weak) (perf.)
counsellor – ragineis (m. Ja)
country – land (n. A)
countryman – inkunja (m. N)
cousin – 1. gadilligs (m. Noun) (male) 2. niþjo (f. N) (female) 3. ganiþjis (m. Ja)
coutiousness – gaþagki (n. Ja)
covenant (n.) – triggwa (f. O)
cover, to – huljan (I weak j)
cow – *kos (f. Cons)
craftiness – warei (f. N)
crane – *krana (m. N)
crazy – 1. dwals (adj. A) (foolish, stupid) 2. woþs (adj. A) (raging mad, insane)
cream – 1. *raums (m. A) 2. *riuma (m. N)
creation – gaskafts (f. I)
creature (n.) – gaskafts (f. I)
creditor – dulgahaitja (m. N)
creep, to – sliupan (II abl) (as in creep into the house)
crime – missadeþs (f. I)
criminological – *missadedileis (adj. A)
criminologist – 1. *missadedileis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *missadedileisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
criminology – *missadedileisei (f. N)
crooked – wraiqs (adj. A)
cross – 1. *kruks (m./n. A) 2. galga (m. N) (christian cross)
crow, to – hrukjan (I weak i)
crown – 1. waips (m. Noun) 2. wipja (f. Jo)
crown, to – weipan (I abl)
crucify, to – 1. ushramjan (I j) 2. hramjan (I weak j)
crumbs – drauhnos (f. O plur)
cry (n.) – hrops (m. A)
cry, to (v.) – wopjan (I weak i)
crystal – *eisastains (m. A)
cube – 1. *kubus (m. U) 2. *kwbus (m. U)
cubit – aleina (f. O)
cuckoo bird – *gauks (m. A)
cultural – *biuhtje (lit. Of the customs)
culture – 1. *kunjahaidus (m. U) (lit. tribe-manner) 2. *biuhtja (n. Ja) (lit. customs)
cup – stikls (m. A), ~ of water = stikls (m. A) watin
cupboard – *armali (n. Ja) (W. E.)
custom – 1. biuhti (n. Ja), according to the ~ = bi biuhtja 2. biuhts (adj. A)
cut, to – maitan (I red), ~ off = usmaitan (I red)
cymbal – klismo (f. N)
Czech – 1. *Tsjaiks (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Tsjaikisks (adj. A)
Czech republic – *Tsjaikaland (n. A)
Dalmatia – Dalmatia (f. Declined as O)
Damascian – Damasks (adj. A)
Damascus – Damasko (f. N)
daily – 1. sinteino (adv) 2. sinteins (adj. A) 3. seiteins (adj. A)
damnation – afdomeins (f. I/O)
dance – laiks (m. A)
dance, to – plinsjan (I i weak)
Dane – *Dans (m. I)
Danish – 1. *Daniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Danisks (adj. A)
danger – 1. bireikei (f. N) (the state of being in danger) 2. sleiþei (f. N) (potential external harm or destruction)
dangerous – sleiþs (adj. I/Ja) (declined as -ja stem mostly)
Danube – *Donaweis (m. Ja)
dare, to – anananþjan (I weak)
dark – *riqizeins (adj. A)
darkness – riqis (n. A)
dart – arhvazna (f. O)
darts – arhvaznos (f. O)
data – *data (n. A plural), big ~ = mikila (adj. A plural) *data (n. A plural)
database – *datahuzd (n. A)
dative – *dateibus (m. U)
daughter – dauhtar (f. R)
day – dags (m. A), daily = daga hvammeh, ~ by ~ = daga jah daga, every ~ = dags hindar daga (as a continuation of days in which something happens), the eighth ~ = ahtaudogs (adj. A), the next ~ = afardags (m. A), to~ = himma daga,
deacon – diakaunus (m. U)
deafto become ~ = afdaubnan (IV weak)
deafness – 1. daubiþa (f. O) 2. daubei (f. N)
death – dauþus (m. U), appointed to ~ = dauþubleis (adj. Ja)
debt – skuld (n. A)
debtor – 1. skula (m. N) 2. faihuskula (m. N) (Only occurs once)
decade (n.) – taihun jera (n. A plural)
deceit – liutei (f. N)
deceitfullness – afmarzeins (f. I/O)
deceive, to – 1. afairzjan (I weak), he ~s himself = sis silbin fraþjamarzeins ist 2. usluton (II weak)
declare, to (v.) – gakannjan (I weak i)
declaration – insahts (f. I)
decree – gagrefts (f. I)
deed – taui (n. Ja) (dat. sing. and nom./acc. plur. = toja, dat. plur. = tojam)
deep – diups (adj. A)
deepness – diupei (f. N)
deer – 1. *raiha (m. N) 2. *raihs (m. A)
defend, to – gawitan (pret-pres)
defiled, to be – bisaulnan (IV weak)
deliver, to – undredan (abl red)
demon – 1. unhulþo (f. N)
demonological – *unhulþaleis (adj. A)
demonologist – 1. *unhulþaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *unhulþaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
demonology – *unhulþaleisei (f. N)
Denmark – Danimarka (f. O)
dentist – *tunþulekeis (m. Ja)
deny, to – afaikan (VII)
depart, to – 1. afleiþan (abl. I) 2. aftiuhan (II abl)
departure – diswiss (f. I)
deposit – wadi (n. Ja)
descend, to – gasteigan (I abl)
desert – 1. auþida (f. O) 2. auþeis (adj. Ja)
desire – 1. lustus (m. U) 2. gairnei (f. N)
desire, to – 1. luston (II weak) + gen (as in feeling lust for another person) 2. wiljan (conjugated as subjunctive) (desire as in to want something, having a desire)
desirous – gairns (adj.)
desolate – ainakls (adj. A)
despise, to – frakunnan (pret-pres) + dat.
destruction – fralusts (f. I)
devil – 1. diabaulus (m. U) (the devil) 2. unhulþo (f. N) (a devil)
dictionary – (neol) *waurdabokos (f. O)
die, to – 1. gaswiltan (III abl)
difference – 1. gaskaideins (f. I/O) 2. anþarleikei (f. N) (only in skeireins)
different – missaleiks (adj. A)
difficult – 1. aglus (adj. U) 2. agluba (adv)
dig, to (v.) – usgraban (VI abl.)
diligence – usdaudei (f. N)
diminishing – wanains (f. I)
dinner – undaurnimats (m. I)
discouragement – unlustus (m. U)
dishonour – unswerei (f. N)
disobedience – ufarhauseins (f. I/O)
disorderly – ungatewiþs (past-perf)
dispensation – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
disposed – garaiþs (adj. A)
disputed – *andsakans (part-perf)
disputer – sokareis (m. Ja)
disregard, to – ~ life = ufarmunnon (II weak) saiwalai
dissemble, to (v.)~ with someone = miþlitjan (I weak j) + dat (And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him , Gal. 2:13 = jah miþlitidedun imma þai anþarai Iudaieis)
dissimulation (n.) – lita (f. O)
distaff – *rukka (m. N)
distress – aggwiþa (f. O)
ditch – dals (m. Noun)
division – missaqiss (f. I) (in opinion between people)
divorce, to – afsatjan (I weak)
divorcement – afsateins (f. I/O)
doctor – laisareis (m. Ja), ~ of the law = witodalaisareis (m. Ja)
doctrine – laiseins (f. I/O)
dominion – fraujinassus (m. U)
donkey – assilus (m. U)
doomsday – *stauadags (m. A)
doubting – tweifleins (f. I/O)
dove (n.) – ahaks (noun) (white tame dove)
download, to – *ufarbairan (IV abl)
dragma – drakma (m. N)
dragon – 1. *waurms (m. A) 2. *draka (m. An)
dream – 1. *swifns (m. A) 2. *draums (m. A)
dream, to – *draumjan (heavy i weak), I dreamed = mik draumida
drink, to – drigkan (III abl)
drugs – *lubi (n. Ja)
drunk, to be – anadrigkan (III abl) + dat
drunkard – afdrugkja (m. N)
drunkenness – drugkanei (f. N)
dry – þaursus (adj. U)
dryad (wood-dweller) – *widugauja (m. N)
duchess – *harjatugo (f. N)
Dublin – *Swartaswumfsl (n. A)
duke – *harjatuga (m. N)
dust – stubjus (m. U)
Dutch – 1. *niþralandja (m. N) 2. *niþralandisks (adj. A)
dwarf – *dwairgs (m. A)
dwell, to (v.) – bauan (verb)
dying – dauþeins (f. I/O)
eager – gairns (adj.)
eagle – ara (m. N)
ear – auso (n. N), ~ of corn = ahs (n. A)
earl – *airls (m. A)
earlier – airis
early – air
earnest – wadi (n. Ja)
earth – airþa (f. O)
earthquake – reiro (f. N)
earthy – 1. airþeins (adj. A) 2. airþakunds (adj. A) (only occurs once in the skeireins)
easier – raþiza (Comp.)
east – 1. *austrs (m. A) 2. *austra- (adj.), from the ~ = *austana, in the ~ = *austar, to the ~ = *austar
eastwards – *austar
easy – azets (adj. A)
eat, to – matjan (I j weak)
ecclesiology – *aikklesjaleisei (f. N)
eclipse – solar ~ = sunnins riqis (n. A), lunar ~ = menins riqis (n. A)
Edda – *Izdo (f. N)
edification – gatimreins (f. I/O)
eel – *els (m. A)
effect (n.) – taui (n. Ja)
effectual (adj.) – waurstweigs (adj. A)
effectually (adv.) – waurstweig
egg – *addjis (n. A)
either~ … or = andizuh … aiþþau
elbow – *aleinabuga (m. N)
elder – 1. alþeis (adj. Ja) 2. praizbwtairei (f. N) (from jewish religion)
election – gawaleins (f. I/O)
electron – *elaiktraun (n.)
electronics – *elaiktraunika (n. A plural)
element – stafs (m. I) (f changes to b in gen. and dat. Sing. and all plural forms)
elf – *albs (m. A)
email – 1. *e-bokos (f. O plural) (a mail itself) 2. *waurdasandja (f. O) (e-mail service) (lit. word-sender) 3. *waurdjo (f. Jon) (e-mail service) (lit. worder)
embassador – to be ~ = airinon (II weak)
emerald – *smaragdus (m. U)
emotion – *ahins (undeclined) drobna (m. N)
emperor – kaisar (m. A)
employee (n.) – gawaurstwa (m. N)
empty – laus (adj. A), with ~ hands = laushandus (adj. U)
end – andeis (m. Ja)
end, to (v.) – ustiuhan (II abl)
endless – 1. andalaus 2. andilaus (adj. A)
endure, to – usbeidan (I abl) + acc
enemy – fijands (m. Nd)
energy – *mahts (f. I)
entire (adj.) – alls (adj. strong)
England – land (n. A) *aggile
English – *Aggils (adj. A)
Englishman – *Aggils (m. I)
enlarge, to – urrumnan (IV weak)
enlighten, to – inliuhtjan (I weak i)
Enlightment – *inliuhteins (f. I/O)
enmity – fijaþwa (f. O)
enough – it is ~ = ganah
enriched, to be – gabignan (IV weak)
envy – neiþ (n. A)
equality – ibnassus (m. U)
error – 1. airzei (f. N) 2. airziþa (f. O)
escape, to – unþaþliuhan (II abl) + acc
Esperantist – *Aispairantistus (m. U)
Esperanto – *Aispairanto (f. N)
estate – 1. low ~ = hnaiweins (f. I/O) 2. *oþal (n. A)
eternal – aiweins (adj. A)
eternity – 1. aiws (m. A/I) (accusative plural declines as aiwins, the rest as an a-stem) 2. ajukduþs (f. I)
Europe – *aiwropa (f. O)
European – 1. (noun) *Aiwropus (m. U/I) 2. *aiwropisks (adj. A)
evangelist – aiwaggelista (m. N)
even – often not translated or omitted, ~ so = swah
evening – andanahti (n. Ja)
everfor ~ and ~ = du aiwam
everlasting – aiweins (adj. A)
evermore – framwigis
every – 1. hvarjis (m.) (dat. = hvarjammeh, acc. = hvarjanoh) 2. hvarjatoh (n.) (gen. = hvarjizuh, dat. = hvarjammeh) 3. *hvarjoh (f.) (gen. = *hvarjizozuh, dat. = *hvarjaih acc. = hvarjoh) 4. in ~ thing = in allamma
everywhere – hvaruh
evil – unþiuþ (n. A)
exalt, to – ushauhjan (I i)
exalted, to be – ufarhafnan (IV weak)
examine, to – ussokjan (I i weak)
example – frisahts (f. I)
exceed, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
exclude, to – usletan (V red abl)
exclusion – *uslet (n. A)
excess – usstiurei (f. N)
except – alja + dat
excuse oneself, to – 1. sik faurqiþanana/a haban, (m) excuse me = habai mik faurqiþanana (f) habai mik faurqiþana 2. sunjon (II weak)
exercise – usþroþeins (f. I/O)
experiment – gakusts (f. I)
explanation – skeireins (f. I/O)
extraordinary – ussindo
eye – augo (n. N), evil ~ = augo unsel, ~ of a needle = þairko (n. N), with one ~ = haihs (adj. A)
eyeliner – *augaswartis (n. A)
eyewitness – silbasiuneis (m. Ja)
fable – spill (n. A)
face – 1. ludja (f. Jo) 2. wlits (noun)
fainted – afdauiþs (part-perf)
faith – galaubeins (f. I/O)
faithful – galaubeins (adj. A)
falcon – *habuks (m. A)
fall – drus (m. Noun) (dative singular = drusa)
fall, to – 1. driusan (II abl), ~ down = atdriusan (II abl), ~ from = usdriusan (II abl), ~ upon = disdriusan (II abl) + acc 2. walwison (II weak), ~ on the ground = ana airþa walwison (II weak)
fallow – *falws (adj. Wa)
fame – doms (m. A)
familiar – biuhts (adj. A)
family – 1. gards (m. I) (literally: house) 2. fadreins (f. I) (literally: lineage)
famine – huhrus (m. U)
fan – winþiskauro (f. N) (to blow wind)
farao – farao (m. N)
farewellto bid ~ = andqiþan (V abl)
fasting – lausqiþrei (f. N)
fate – *waurþs (f. I)
father – 1. atta (m. N) 2. fadar (m. R) (Only occurs once and used for an earthly father, but atta can be used for an earthly father too.)
fatigue, to – *afdojan (I weak)
favoured – audahafts (adj. A)
fear – agis (n. A)
feast – dulþs (f. I)
feather – *fiþra (f. O)
feeble – gamaiþs (adj.)
feebleminded – grindafraþjis (adj. Ja)
fellowship – gamainei (f. N)
female – qineins (adj. A)
Fenrir (wolf myth.) – *fanareis (m. Ja)
fetters – þo ana fotum eisarna (n. A)
fever – 1. brinno (f. N) 2. heito (f. N)
few – faus (adj. A)
fiend – fijands (m. Cons.)
fiery – funisks (adj. A)
fig – smakka (m. N)
fig tree – smakkabagms (m. A)
fight, to – 1. jiukan (III weak) 2. haifstjan (I i weak)»
(only occurs once) 3. weihan (I abl)
fighting – waihjo (f. N)
fill, to – fulljan (I i weak), get filled, to – fullnan (IV weak)
film – *film (n. A)
filthiness – bisauleins (f. I/O)
filthy – ~ lucre = aglaitigastalds (adj. A)
find, to – bigitan (V abl)
finger – figgrs (m. A)
Finland – *Finnahaiþi (f. Jo)
Finn – *Finnahaiþs (m. A)
Finnish – *Finnisks (adj. A)
fire – fon (noun) (gen. Sing. = funins, dat. Sing. = funin)
first – 1. frumist 2. fruma (adj. A weak)
firstfruit – ufarskafts (f. I)
fish – fisks (m. A)
fisher – fiskja (m. N)
fit – 1. gatils (adj. A) 2. fagrs (adj. A)
fit, to – gamanwjan (I i weak)
fitly – gatemiba
five – fimf
flag – *fana (m. N)
flee, to – afþliuhan (II abl) (perfective)
flesh – mammo (f. N) (human meat) 2. mimz (noun) (of meat to eat)
flight – þlauhs (m. I)
flock – aweþi (n. Ja)
flood – 1. ahwa (f. O) 2. garunjo (f. N) 3. midjaswipains (f. I) (natural disaster)
flood, to – swipan (III)
floor – gaþrask (n. A)
flower – bloma (m. N)
flower, to – *blauan (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
flute – to play ~ = swiglon (II weak)
fly, to – *fliugan (II)
foam – hvaþo (f. N)
follow, to – afarlaistjan (I i weak) + dat
follower – galaista (m. N)
foolish – unfroþs (adj. A)
foolishness – 1. unwiti (n. Ja) 2. niuklahei (f. N)
foot – fotus (m. U)
football – *fotuballa (m. N)
footstool (n.) – fotubaurd (n. A)
for – 1. (For as intention) dative use, eg. For him = imma 2. faur (for something) 3. in þis (because) 4. auk (only in second or third position) (synonym of because as giving a reason)
forbid, to – warjan (i weak j), God ~ = Nis-sijai
forefathers – airizans (Comp. Weak)
forest – *widus (m. U)
forget, to – ufarmunnon (II weak)
forgive, to – fraletan (red abl)
forgiveness – fralet (n. A)
fork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
form, to – gadigan (abl I)
formed – garaiþs (adj. A)
fornication – 1. kalkinassus (m. U) 2. horinassus (m. U)
forsake, to – bileiþan (I)
forum – *maþl (n. A) (online too)
found, to – gasuljan (I j weak)
foundation – 1. gaskafts (f. I) (as in foundation of the world) 2. *gasuleins (f. I/O) 3. grunduwaddjus (m. U) (stone wall)
fountain – brunna (m. N)
four – fidwor, dat. = fidworim
fox – fauho (f. N)
fragment – gabruko (f. O)
France – *Fragkaland (n. A)
free – freis (adj. Ja), ~ from = freis (adj. Ja) + gen, for ~ / ~ of charge = arwjo (adv.)
freedom – 1. freihals (m. A) 2. frijei (f. N) (only one occurence)
freeman – fralets (m. Noun)
freemason – 1. *freitimrja (m. N) 2. *frijatimrja (m. N)
freemasonry – *freitimreins (f. I/O) 2. *frijatimreins (f. I/O)
Freyja – frauja (f. O)
Freyr – fraujis (m. Ja)
freeze, to – friusan (II)
Friday – *fraujins dags (m. A)
friend – 1. (m.) frijonds (m. Nd) 2. (f.) frijondi (f. Jo)
fright – agis (n. A)
frighten, to – usagjan (I weak j)
frog – *frusks (m. A)
frost – frius (n. A)
fruit – akran (n. A), to bring ~ = gawrisqan (III abl)
fruitless – akranalaus (adj. A)
fulfilling – usfulleins (f. I/O)
full – fulls (adj. A) + gen (gen. is used when translated as full of)
fuller – wullareis (m. Ja)
fullness – fullo (f. N)
furtherance – framgahts (f. I)
future – 1. *anawairþ (n. A) 2. anawairþs (adj. A)
gain – faihugawaurki (n. Ja) (gain in possession)
gain, to – gageigan (III weak) ~ from = bifaihon (II weak)
Galatia – Galatia (f. O)
Galatian – Galateis (m. I)
Galilee – Galeilaius (m. U/I)
garbage – maihstus (m. U)
garden – aurtigards (m. I)
garment – snaga (m. N)
gate – 1. daur (n. A) 2. dauro (f. N)
gather, to – lisan (V abl.)
gathering – gaqumþs (m. I)
gay – *samalustja (m. N) (homosexual)
Geat – *gauts (m. A)
genealogy – gabaurþiwaurd (n. A)
genitive – *gainiteibus (m. U)
Gentiles (n.) – þiudos (f. O) (plural)
gentle – qairrus (adj. U)
gentleness – 1. selei (fu. N) 2. mukamodei (f. N)
geological – *airþaleis (adj. A)
geologist – 1. *airþaleis (m. A) (declined like a strong adjective) 2. *airþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective)
geology – *airþaleisei (f. N)
German – *gairmanisks (adj. A)
Germanism – *Gairmanismus (m. U)
Germany – *Gairmanja (f. O)
ghost – ahma (m. N) (disembodied spirit)
giant – 1. *þauris (m. A) 2. *wrisja (m. N) (enormous)
gift – giba (f. O)
gird, to – bigairdan (III abl)
girdle – gairda (f. O)
girl – mawilo (f. N)
give, to – giban (V abl) + dat
giver – gibands (m. Nd)
glad – to be ~ = faginon (II weak)
gladly – gabaurjaba
gladness – swegniþa (f. O)
glitter, to – glitmunjan (I weak)
glorified, to be – ushauhnan (IV weak)
glorify, to – gasweran (III weak)
glory – wulþus (m. U)
glove – *lauhs (m. A)
glutton – afetja (m. N)
gnushing – krusts (m. Noun)
go, to – gaggan (III red), ~ before (someone/something) = faurbigaggan (III red) ~ with = miþgaggan (III red)
goal – mundrei (f. N)
goat – gaits (m. I), ~’s milk = gaitimiluks (f. Cons.)
God – 1. Guþ (m. A) (Abrahamic God) 2. Guþ (n. A) (other God then christian or jewish one), the form of ~ = gudaskaunei (f. N) 3. *ansus (m. U) (used for Germanic Gods)
goddess – *gudeinja (f. Jo)
godless – gudalaus (adj. A)
godliness – gagudei (f. N)
godly – 1. gudisks (adj. A) 2. gaguþs (adj. A)
gold – gulþ (n. A)
golden – gulþeins (adj. A)
good – goþs (adj. A)
goodness – selei (f. N)
goose – *gans (f. Cons.)
gospel – aiwaggeljo (f. N)
Goth – Guta (m. A)
Gothic – 1. *Gutisks (adj. A) 2. *~ language – Gutiska (adj. A) razda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O), Gutrazda (f. O)
Gothiscandza – *Gutskaþja (f. Jo)
Goths – Gutþiuda (f. O) among the ~ – ana Gutþiudai
governor – kindins (m. A)
grace – ansts (f. I)
gracious – hulþs (adj. A)
grains – *finja (f. O) (Attested as the Gothic word “fenea” in De observatione Ciborum from Anthimus and as “fingia” in the Liber derivationum from Ugutio, the reconstruction given here is in Wulfilan Gothic)
grandfather – *awa (m. N)
grandma – awo (f. N)
grandmother – awo (f. N)
grandpa – *awa (m. N)
grape – weinabasi (n. Ja)
grass – hawi (n. Ja)
grave – 1. hlaiw (n. A) 2. gariuþs (adj. A)
graveyard – *nawistre gards (m. I)
great – mikils (adj. A)
greater – maiza (Comp.)
greatness – mikilei (f. N)
Greece – *Krekaland (n. A)
greed – 1. faihufrikei (f. N) 2. faihugairnei (f. N) 3. faihugeiro (f. N)
Greek – Kreks (m. A)
green – *groneis (adj. Ja)
Greenland – *Groniland (n. A)
Greenlandic – 1. *Gronilandisks (adj. A) 2. *Gronilandiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) (language)
greeting – goleins (f. I/O)
grey – 1. *grews (adj. A) 2. *graus (adj. Wa) (W.E.)
groan, to – inrauhtjan (I weak i)
group – 1. kuni (n. Ja) (tribe or subdivision of hierarchy) 2. kubitus (m. U) (group around table)
grow, to – liudan (II abl) ~ older = usalþan (III red)
hagiography – *weihameleins (f. I/O)
hagiology – *weihaleisei (f. N)
hail – hagl (n. A)
half – 1. halba (f. O) 2. halbs (adj. A)
hallowed, to be – weihnan (IV weak)
hand – handus (f. U)
hang, to – hahan (III red), ~ oneself = ushahan sik (III red)
happen, to – wairþan (III)
harbor – *habana (f. O)
hard – 1. hardus (adj. U) 2. aglus (adj. U) (synonym of difficult)
hardly – 1. harduba (adv) (adverb of hard) 2. agluba (synonym of difficult) 3. halisaiw (barely)
hardness – ~ of heart = harduhairtei (f. N)
haste – with ~ = sniumundo
have, to (v.) – haban (III weak) (for things which one possesses, for to have to, e.g. I have to, use skulan (pret. pres.).)
hawk – *habuks (m. A)
heal, to – leikinon (II weak)
healed, to be – gahailnan (IV weak)
healing – leikinassus (m. U)
hear, to – 1. hausjan (I i weak) 2. hausjon (II weak)
heart – hairto (n. N), hardness of ~ = harduhairtei (f. N)
heathens (n.) – þiudos (f. O) (plural)
heaven – himins (m. A) (never with article, accompanying adjective always declines strongly)
heavenly – himinakunds (adj. A)
Hebrew – 1. Haibraius (m. U/I) (person) 2. *Haibraiwisks (adj. A), ~ language = *Haibraiwiska (adj. A) razda (f. O)
hedge – faþa (f. O)
heel – fairzna (f. O)
height – hauhei (f. N)
heir – 1. arbja (m. N) 2. arbinumja (m. N)
heiress – arbjo (f. N)
hell – 1. gaiainna (noun) (Greek) 2. halja (f. O), to ~ with you = *Diabaulus þuk nimai
hello – 1. hails + voc (to a man), haila + voc (to a woman) 2. Golja þuk 3. Fagino
helmet – hilms (m. A)
help, to – 1. hilpan (III abl) + gen. 2. niþan (V abl) + acc.
Helsinki – *Halsiggefurs
hen – *hano (f. N)
herb – gras (n. A)
herd – hairda (f. O)
Herding (myth.) – *hazdiggs (m. A)
here – her
Herodian – Herodianus (m. U/I)
Herule – *Airuls (m. A)
hero – *haliþs / *haluþs (m. Cons.)
hew, to – ~ out = ushulon (II weak)
hi – see: hello
hide, to – affilhan (III abl)
hidden – 1. analaugns (adj. I) 2. fulgins (adj. A)
Hierapolis – Iairapaulei (noun)
high – hauhs (adj. A)
higher – 1. hauhis 2. auhuma (comp. Weak)
highway – wigs (m. A)
hill – hlain (n. A)
hill-country – bairgahei (f. N)
him – imma (dat) ina (acc)
hinder, to – analatjan (I j weak)
hip – hups (m. I)
hireling – asneis (m. Ja)
his – is, seinis (gen. M/N), seinaizos (gen. F), seinamma (dat. M/N), seinai (dat. F), seinana (acc. M), seinaize (gen. M/N pl.), seinaizo (gen. F pl.), seinaim (dat. Pl.) seinans (acc. M. Pl.) seina (acc. N. Pl.), seinos (acc. F. Pl.) ( Sein- is used to refer back to a 3rd person subject. In these cases is (‘his’) or izos (‘her’) would also work. Is and izos would be necessary if the noun they refer back to is not the subject of the sentence. Example: Hunds meins beitiþ bain sein. My dog bites his bone. Hunds anþar beitiþ bain is (þatei ist bain hundis meinis). Another dog bites his bone (that is my dog’s bone). Sein- = ones own, is = of someone else) Explained by Iaihime
history – *spill (n. A)
hither – hidre
Hlin (myth.) – *Hleins (m. A)
Hoder (myth.) – *Haflus (m. U)
hole – þairko (f. N)
holiness – weihiþa (f. O)
holocaust – alabrunsts (f. I)
holy – 1. weihs (adj. A)
holyday (n.) – dags (m. A) dulþais
home – gards (m. I), to take ~ = in gard tiuhan, at ~ = anahaimeis (adj. Ja), far from ~ = afhaimeis (adj. Ja)
homosexual – *samalustja (m. N)
honesty – gariudi (n. Ja)
honestly – garedaba
honey – miliþ (n. A), bee ~ = biwamiliþ (n. A)
honour – *swerei (f. N)
honourable – 1. galaufs (adj. A) 2. gaguds (adj)
hope – 1. wens (f. I) 2. lubains (f. I)
horse – *marhs (m. A)
hospitable – gastigoþs (adj. A)
hospitality – gastigodei (f. N)
host – wairdus (m. U)
hostile – andaneiþs (adj. A)
hotel – *haribairgo (f. N)
hour – hweila (f. O), not for an ~ = ni hweilohun
house – 1. razn (n. A) 2. gards (m. I) (also used as family)
hovercraft – *ufarwataskip (n. A)
how – 1. (int.) Hvaiwa 2. Hvan ( as in: how narrow or how much, how nice)
human – manna (m. N)
humanity – manniskodus (m. U)
humbleness (n.) – hauneins (f. I/O)
hundredfold – •r• falþs (adj. A)
Hungarian – 1. *Hungarus (m. U/I) 2. *Hungariska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Hungarisks (adj. A)
Hungary – *Hungarja (f. O)
hunger – 1. gredus (m. U) 2. huhrus (m. U)
hungry – gredags (adj. A)
hunny – miliþ (n. A)
hurry, to – sniwan (V abl)
husband – aba (m. N)
hymn (n.) – hazeins (f. I/O)
hypocrite – 1. liuts (adj. A) 2. liuta (m. N)
I – ik (only used for comparison or emphasis)
ice – *eis (n. A)
Iceland – *+eisaland (n. A)
ichthyology – *fiskaleisei (f. N)
idea – mitons (f. I)
identical (adj.) – sama (adj. A)
ideological – *mitonileis (adj. A)
ideology – *mitonileisei (f. N)
idiot – 1. (m.) dwala (m. N) 2. (f.) dwalo (f. N)
idolatry – galiugagude skalkinassus (m. U) (first part undeclined)
if – 1. ~, indeed (expected answer is yes) = jabai 2. (Expected answer is no), nibai 3. (Rhetorical) Ibai
illuminate, to – galiuhtjan (I weak)
illumination – *galiuhteins (f. I/O)
image – manleika (m. N)
imagination – gahugds (f. I)
immediately – suns
immortal – unriurs (adj. I)
immortality – undiwanei (f. N)
impetuous – gaheis (adj. Ja)
importance – wulþrs (f. I)
important – wulþrais (genitive of sing. worth), it is ~ = wulþrais ist
imprisonment – karkara (f. O)
incinerate, to – *frabrannjan
incontinency – ungahobains (f. I)
increase – uswahst (f. I)
increase, to – biaukan (VII)
independance – freihals (m. A)
infirmity – unmahts (f. I)
inheritance – arbi (n. Ja)
inheritor – arbinumja (m. N)
injure, to – 1. holon (II weak) 2. gaskaþjan (VI abl.)
injustice – ungaraihtei (f. N)
ink – *swartis (n. A)
insomuch – swaei
inspiration – ahmateins (f. I/O)
instruct, to – usþroþjan (I weak i)
instruction – talzeins (f. I/O)
insult – ganaiteins (f. I/O)
insult, to –  (ga)naitjan (I weak i)
insurrection – auhjodus (m. U)
intend, to – fauragahugjan (I weak j)
intention – muns (m. I)
intercession – liteins (f. I/O)
interest – leihwa (f. O) (finance)
international – *ufarmarkeis (adj. Ja)
internet – +*ganati (n. Ja)
interrupt, to – warjan (I weak j)
intreaty – usbloteins (f. I/O)
invisible – *unanasiuns (adj. I)
inwardly – innaþro
iron – eisarneins (adj. A)
island – hulms (m. A)
Israel – Israel (m. A)
Israeli – 1. Israelitus (m. U/I) (citizen) 2. *Israelisks (adj. A)
Italian – 1. *Italus (m. U/I) 2. *Italiska (adj. A) razda 3. *Italisks (adj. A)
Italy – *Italja (f. O)
itch, to – suþjan (I weak j)
jacket – paida (f. O)
Japan – (neol.) Iapan (m. A)
jealous, to be – aljinon (II weak)
jeopardy (n.)to be in ~ = birekjai wisan (abl. V) Jericho – Eiairiko (f. N)
Jerusalem – Iairusalem (same in all cases except for genitive Iairusalems)
jesting – saldra (f. O)
Jesuit – *Iesuitus (m. U)
Jesus – Iesus (m. A)
Jew – Iudaius (m. U/I)
jewel – precious ~ = *airknastains (m. A)
Jewish – iudaiwisks (adj. A)
job – arbaiþs (f. I)
join, to – ~ together = gagatilon (II weak)
joke – saldra (f. O)
Jordan – Iaurdanus (m. U/I)
journey – wratodus (m. U)
joy – faheþs (f. I)
Judea – Iudaia (f. O)
judge – staua (m. N)
judgement – staua (f. O)
jug – aurkeis (m. Ja)
just – 1. (only) þatainei 2. ~ as = swaswe 3. goþs (adj. A) (just as in good)3. garaihts (adj. A) (the just, as in a just person)
justify, to – (ga)sunjon (II weak)
keep, to – bairgan (III abl) + dat (as in to keep something)
key – *lukils (m. A)
keyboard – *bokabaurd (n. A) (computer)
kill, to – afslahan (VI)
king – þiudans (m. A)
kingdom – þiudinassus (m. U)
kinsman (n.) – *samakunja (declined as adj. I)
kiss – frijons (f. I)
kiss, to – kukjan (I) + dat
kiwi – 1. *kiwi (n. Ja) 2. *keiwei (f. N)
knee – kniu (n. Wa)
kneeling – *knussus (m. U)
knife – 1. *kneifs (m. A) 2. *kneiba (m. N) 3. *sahs (n. A)
knock, to – *knukon (II weak)
know, to – kunnan (prt-prs)
knowledge – kunþi (n. Ja)
labour – arbaiþs (f. I)
labour, to (v.) – arbaidjan (I weak j)
lack – 1. gaidw (n. A) 2. waninassus (m. U)
laugh, to~ at = bihlahjan (VI)
lake – marisaiws (m. Noun)
lamb – 1. lamb (n. A) 2. wiþrus (m. U) (only one occurence) 3. *lambamimz (noun) (To eat as flesh)
lame – halts (adj. A)
lament, to – 1. qainon (II weak) 2. gaunon (II weak)
land – land (n. A), ancestral ~ = *oþal (n. A), ~ which one owns = haimoþli (n. Ja)
lantern (n.) – skeim(s) (noun)
Laodicea – Laudeikaia (noun)
lasciviousness – aglaitei (f. N)
last – 1. aftumists (adj. A) 2. spedumists (adj. A) 3. spediza (Comp.), only in: ist so spedeizei airziþa wairsizei þizai frumein = the last error shall be worst than the first 3. aftuma (comp.) (Of two)
late – seiþus (adj. U)
lately – *niujaba
latrine – *gaggs (m. A)
law – witoþ (n. A), under the ~ = uf witoda, doctor of the ~ = witodalaisareis (m. Ja), giving of the ~ = witodis garaideins (f. I/O)
lawfulit is ~ = binah
lawless – witodalaus (adj. A)
lawyer – witodafasteis (m. Ja)
lay, to – ~ down = afhnaiwjan (I i weak)
laying~ of the hands = analageins (f. I/O)
lead, to – tiuhan (II abl), ~ up = ustiuhan (II abl), ~ about = bitiuhan (II abl)
leaf – laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
learned – *uslaisiþs (past-perf), never ~ = unuslaisiþs (past-perf)
least – 1. minnists (adj. Superl.) 2. smalista (suprl.) (Weak)
leather – filleins (adj. A)
leave, to~ with = bileiþan (I abl.)
leaven – beist (n. A)
left – hleiduma (Comp.)
Leiden (n.) – *laida (f. O)
length – laggei (f. N)
leper – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
leprosy (n.) – þrutsfill (n. A), to have ~ = þrutsfill haban
lesbian – *samalustjo (f. N)
less – 1. mins 2. minniza (Comp.)
lest – ibai sware
let, to – letan (abl red) ~ down = athahan (III red)
letter – boka (f. O)
Levite (n.)~s = Laiwweiteis
lexicology – *waurdaleisei (f. N)
library – 1. *bokarazn (n. A) 2. *bokahus (n. A)
lick – 1. *bilaigons (f. I) 2. *bilaigoþus (m. U)
lick, to – bilaigon (II weak)
lie, to – 1. ligan (V abl) (to lie down somewhere) 2. liugan (II abl) (As in telling a lie)
Liechtenstein – (neol) *Liuhtastains (m. A)
light – 1. liuhaþ (n. A) 2. liuhadei (f. N) 3. leihts (adj. A)
light, to – tandjan (I weak i)
lighthouse – *liuhadakelikn (n. A)
lightning – lauhmuni (f. Jo)
like – 1. swa (As in: Just like him) 2. galeiks (adj. A) (As in: It is like/resembles)
like, to – galeikan (III) + dat (thing which is liked, example: þata galeikaiþ mis = I like it, literally: That pleases me)
likewise – samaleiko
linen – ~ cloth = lein (n. A)
linguist – 1. *razdaleis (m. A) 2. *razdaleisa (f. O)
linguistics – *razdaleisei (f. N)
list – wiko (f. N)
literacy – *bokaleisei (f. N)
literature – *bokaleisei (f. N)
liver – *miltja
lock, to – lukan (II abl), (he/she locked = lauk)
locust – þramstei (f. N)
Loki (myth.) – 1. *lauha (m. N) 2. *luka (m. N)
load, to – *usbriggan (III abl) (digital)
loin – hups (m. I)
lonely, to become – gaainan (III weak)
long – laggs (adj. A)
longerno ~ = ni þanaseiþs
longsuffering – usbeisnei (f. N)
look, to – 1. saihvan (V abl) 2. ~ around = ussaihvan (V abl), wlaiton (II weak)
loop – wruggo (f. N)
loot – *raupa (f. O)
lord – frauja (m. N)
lose, to – fraliusan (II abl) + dat
loss – sleiþa (f. O)
lot – 1. a ~ of = filu + gen 2. hlauts (m. A), ~ imma urran = he was chosen by lot
love – frijaþwa (f. O), brotherly ~ = broþrulubo (f. N)
love, to – frijon (II weak) + acc
Lucifer (n.) – auzawandils (m. A)
lump – daigs (m. Noun)
lust – lustus (m. U)
Luxemburg – (neol) *leitilabaurgs (f. Cons)
Macedonia – Makaidonja (f. O)
Macedonian – Makidons (m. I)
machine – *sarwa (n. Wa)
madto be ~ = dwalmon (II weak)
madness – unfrodei (f. N)
magazine – *leihtos bokos (f. O plural)
Magdeburg – (neol) Magaþsbaurgs (f. Cons)
magic – lubjaleisei (f. N)
magical – *lubjaleis (adj. A)
magically – *lubjaleisaba
magpie – *ago (f. N)
maimed – gamaiþs (adj. A)
make-up – *smikwa (f. O) (Italian = smeco) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
male – 1. gumein (n. A) 2. gumakunds (adj. A)
malice – balwawesei (f. N)
man – 1. manna (m. Cons) (plural nom + acc = mans) (human in general) 2. guma (m. N) (masculine person) 3. wair (m. A)
manger – uzeta (m. N)
manifestationby ~ = bairhtein
mankind – manaseþs (f. I)
manner – sidus (m. U), ~ of life = usmet (n. A)
mark – staks (m. I)
market – maþl (n. A) black ~ = swart (adj. A) maþl (n. A)
marmelade – *akranamimz (noun) miþ sakkara
marry, to (v.) – liugan (III weak)
marshall – *marhaskalks (m. A)
marvel, to (v.) – sildaleikjan (I weak i)
marvellous – sildaleiks (adj. A)
Marxism – *Marksismus (m. U)
Marxist – *Marksistus (m. U)
master (n.) – frauja (m. N)
matterdoesn’t ~ to me = mis wulþrais nist
maybe – aufto
me – 1. (Dat) mis 2. (Acc) mik
mead – *midus (m. U) (loanword in Ancient Greek)
meal – mats (m. I)
mean, to – 1. (to signify, what a word means) wisan, gaskeirjan (I) 2. (to intend to) munnan
measure – 1. mitaþs (f. Cons.) 2. mitadjo (f. N)
measure, to – mitan (V abl)
meat – mimz (noun)
mechanical – *maikanikisks (adj. A)
mechanics – *maikanika (n. A plural)
media – 1. *maidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *meidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
mediator – midumonds (m. Nd)
meditate, to – sis siþon (II weak)
meet, to – wiþragaggan (III red) + acc.
member – 1. gadaila (m. N) (of group of people) 2. liþus (of body) 3. ~ of the tribe = inkunja (m. N)
memorial – gamunds (f. I)
memory – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
merciful – bleiþs (adj)
merciful, to be – bleiþjan (I weak i)
mercy – 1.bleiþei (f. N) 2. mildiþa (f. O) 3. gableiþeins (f. I/O)
message – waurd (n. A)
messenger – airus (m. U)
metal – 1. *maital (n. A) (W. E.) 2. *maitaleins (adj. A)
metallic – *maitaleins (adj. A)
microbiology – *leitilalibainileisei (f. N)
midst – midjis (adj. Ja)
might, to (v.) – magan (pret-pres) (used as a subjunctive)
mightier (comp.) – swinþoza (adj. A)
mightily – in mahtai
mile – rasta (f. O)
milk – miluks (f. Cons)
milky way – *milukswigs (m. A)
millstone – asiluqairnus (f. U)
mind – 1. gahugds (f. I) 2. aha (m. N) 3. hugs (m. Noun) (only occurs once) 4. of one ~ = samafraþjis (adj. Ja)
minister – andbahts (m. A)
ministery – *andbahti (n. Ja)
minstrel – swiglja (m. N)
miracle – fauratani (n. Ja) (as a sign)
mirror – skuggwa (m. N)
miserable – arms (adj. A)
mistakento be ~ = sis silbin/silbon fraþjamarzeins wisan
mistletoe – *mistils (m. A)
moccasin – skohs (m. A)
mock, to – bilaikan (I red)
moderation – anawiljei (f. N)
modest – hrains (adj. I)
moisture – qrammiþa (f. O)
moon – mena (m. N), new ~ = fulliþ (noun)
Monday – *menins dags (m. A)
month – menoþs (f. Cons), dat. Pl. = menoþum
money – 1. skatts (m. A)
moneychanger – skattja (m. N)
moral – godei (f. N)
moreno ~ = ni þanaseiþs (as in no longer, not anymore)
morning – 1. maurgins (m. Noun) 2. uhtwo (f. N)
morning-star – auzawandils (m. A)
mortality – *diwanei (f. N)
mortgage – wadi (n. Ja)
moth – *malo (n. N)
mother – aiþei (f. N), wife’s ~ = swaihro (f. N)
mountain – fairguni (n. Ja)
mourn, to – hiufan (II abl)
mourning – gaunoþus (m. U)
mouth – munþs (m. Noun)
move, to – 1. inwagjan (I weak j) (move someone to do something) 2. to be ~d away = afwagjan (I weak j)
movie – *film (n. A)
mr. – *Frauja (m. N)
mugwort – *bibauts
multimedia – 1. *managmaidja (n. Ja plural) (based on Latin) 2. *managmeidja (n. Ja plural) (based on English)
multitude – 1. managei (f. N) 2. iumjo (f. N) 3. hiuhma (m. N)
murderer – manamaurþrja (m. N)
murmuring – birodeins (f. I/O)
muzzle, to – faurmuljan (I i weak) + acc
my – meins (possessive pronoun, always declined strongly)
mystery – runa (f. O)
mystical – *garunileiks (adj. A strong)
nail, to (v.) – ganagljan (I weak i)
naked – naqaþs (adj. A)
nakedness – naqadei (f. N)
name – namo (n. N) (plural nom = namna, plural dat = namnam)
napkin – aurali (n. Ja)
Naples – *Napleis (I)
narrow – aggwus (adj. U)
nation – þiuda (f. O)
national – *innamarkeis (adj. Ja)
nature – wists (f. I), by ~ = wistai, wild by ~ = aljakuns (adj. A)
near – nehva
necessity – andawizn (f. I)
neck – 1. hals (m. Noun) 2. halsagga (m. N)
needle – neþla (f. O)
neglecting – unfreideins (f. I/O)
neighbour – garazno (f. N) (female neighbour) , garazna (m. N) (male neighbour, in plural both genders)
neither – nih
nest – sitls (m. A)
Netherlands – *niþralanda (n. A) (plural)
nettle – *nat(il)o (f. N)
network – *ganati (n. Ja)
neuron – *niuraun (n. A)
neutron – *niutraun (n. A)
nevertheless – 1. iþ 2. ak (only after negation) 3. akei
nextthe ~ day = iftumin daga
new – niujis (adj. Ja)
newness – niujiþa (f. O)
news – spill (n. A)
Nibelungen – *hnibiluggos (m. A) (plural)
nickname – *ananamo (n. N)
nickname, to – ananamnjan (I i weak)
night – nahts (f. Cons), (in days and ~s = in dagam jah nahtam, normally dative plural is nahtim)
nightshirt – *nahtapaida (f. O)
Niord (myth.) – *Nairþus (m. U)
noble – godakunds (adj. A)
noiseto make ~ = auhjon (II weak)
nominative – *nominateibus (m. U)
north – 1. *naurþrs (m. A) 2. *naurþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *naurþana, in the ~ = *naurþar, to the ~ = *naurþar
northwards – *naurþar
Norway – *Naurþrawigs (m. A)
noseto clear ones ~ = *snutjan
nourish up, to – alan (VI abl)
novice – *niujasatiþs (part-perf)
now – nu
number – raþjo (f. N)
oath – aiþs (m. A)
obedience – ufhauseins (f. I/O)
oblivion – ufarmaudei (f. N)
observation – atwitains (f. I)
observe, to – witan (III) + dative
occasion (n.) – lew (noun) (dat. lewa)
Odin – *Wodans (m. A)
odour – dauns (f. I)
Oegir (myth.) – *Ogeis (m. Ja)
offend, to – afmarzjan (I i weak)
office – andbahti (n. Ja), ~ of the priest = gudjinassus (m. U)
officialcourt ~ / ~ person = *gardingus (m. U) (Attested in the Visigothic law, leges Visigothorum IX 2,8 & 2,9; XII 1,8)
offline – *afganatjis (adj. Ja)
often – ufta
oil – alew (n. A)
ointment – salbons (f. I)
old – fairneis (adj. Ja)
oldness – fairniþa (f. O)
olive – alew
olive tree – alewabagms (m. A)
omnibus – *allakarrahago (f. N) (W.E.)
on – (place) ana + dat
once – 1. simle (in the sense: once upon a time) 2. ainamma sinþa (one time)
one – ains (adj. A strong) 2. sums (one of people, so: one man = sums manna)
online – *anaganatjis (adj. Ja)
only – 1. þatainei (conjunction) (used as in: I only want ..) 2. ainaha (adj. A weak), the ~ son = sunus ainaha
open, to – uslukan (II abl), (he/she opened = uslauk)
opening – usluk (n. A)
openly – andaugjo
operation (n.) – waurstw (n. A)
oppress, to – anapraggan (VII)
or – 1. þau (choice between two things) 2. aiþþau (choice between multiple things and other uses then in 1)
ordain, to – satjan (I j weak)
order – 1. tewa (f. O) 2. wiko (f. N), to set in ~ = atgaraihtjan (I i weak)
ordered – 1. garaiþs (adj. A) 2. *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
orderly – gatewiþs (past-perf)
ordinance – garaideins (f. I/O)
origin – ussateins (f. I/O)
ornithology – *fuglaleisei (f. N)
Oslo – *Ansulauha
osteology – *bainaleisei (f. N)
Ostrogoth – *Austraguta (m. N)
Ostrogothic – *Austragutisks (adj. A)
otherwise – aljaleikos (adv)
our – unsar (posessive pronoun, always strongly declined)
outer – hindumists (adj. Superl.)
outside – uta, from the ~ = utana + gen
oven – auhns (m. Noun)
overcharge, to – anakaurjan (I weak i)
overshadow, to – ufarskadwjan (I i weak)
ox – 1. auhsus (m. U) 2. auhsa (m. N) (only one occurence) 3. stiur (m. A)
page – *laufs (m. A) (f turns to b in sing. Gen + dat and all plural forms)
pair – gajuk (n. A)
palace – rohsns (f. I)
palm~ of hand = lofa (noun)
pan – *patina (f. N) (W.E.)
pants – *broks (f. Cons.)
paper – *karta (f. O)
parable – gajuko (f. N)
parchment – maimbrana (m. N)
parent – berusi (m. Ja)
parents – berusjos (m. Ja) (plural)
part – dails (f. I)
partake, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
partiality – wiljahalþei (f. N)
participant – gamainja (m. N)
participate, to – fairaihan (pret-pres) + gen.
participation – daila (f. O)
party – dulþs (f. I)
pass, to – usleiþan (I abl)
passover – 1. paska (feast) 2. pasxa (feast)
password – (neol) *gamotawaurd (n. A)
pastel – *wai(z)da (f. O)
pastry – *bakeins (f. I/O) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
pasture – winja (f. Jo)
path – staiga (f. O)
pathology – *siukaleisei (f. N)
patience – usþulains (f. I)
pay, to – usgildan (V abl)
peace – gawairþi (n. Ja)
peaceable – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peaceful – gawairþeigs (adj. A)
peacock – *pawa (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
pedophilia – *barnalubo (f. N)
pedophile – 1. *barnalubja (m. N) (male) 2. *barnalubjo (f. N) (female)
penny – 1. assarjus (m. U) 2. kintus (m. U)
people – þiuda (f. O)
pepper – *pipr (n. A) (W. E)
perceive, to – gaumjan (I) + dat
perfect – 1. fullatojis (adj. Ja) 2. (adv) glaggwuba 3. fullawita (m. N)
perhaps – aufto
perilous – sleideis (adj. Ja)
perishing – riurei (f. N)
permission – *andlet (n. A)
permittedit is ~ = binah
persecute, to – wrikan (V abl)
persecution – 1. wrakja (f. Jo) 2. wraka (f. O) 3. wrekei (f. N)
persecutor – wraks (m. Noun)
person – manna (m. N)
persuasion – gakunds (f. I)
pervert, to (v.) – inwandjan (I weak i)
Pharisee – Fareisaius (m. U/I)
Phenician – fwnikisks (adj. A)
philosopher – 1. handugs (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. handuga (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
phoenix – *fonfugls (m. A)
physician – lekeis (m. Ja)
pillar – sauls (f. I)
pillow – waggareis (m. Ja)
pinnacle – gibla (m. N)
pipe, to – swiglon (II weak)
piper – 1. *swiglonds (m. Nd) 2. *swiglondi (f. Jo)
pitchfork – 1. *gabla (f. O) 2. *gabls (m. A)
pitifully – *wainaho
pity, to – arman (III weak)
plague, to – balwjan (I weak)
plan – garehsns (f. I)
plant, to – satjan (I j weak)
pleasant – andanems (adj. A)
please, to – galeikan (III weak) + dat
pleasure – gabaurjoþus (m. U) in ~ = in azetjam
pledge, to – gawadjon (II weak)
plough – hoha (m. N)
plow, to – arjan (III red)
pluck, to – raupjan (I weak i)
poem – *liuþ (n. A)
poet – liuþareis (m. Ja)
poison – *aitr (n. A)
Poland – *Paulaland (n. A)
Polish – 1. *paulisks (adj. A)p
police – *wardjans (m. N, plural of wardja)
police officer – 1. *wardja (m. N) 2. *wardjo (f. N)
political – *paulitikisks (adj. A) (W. E.)
politics – *paulitika (f. O) (W. E.)
pomp – wulþus (m. U)
pope – *papa (m. N)
pork – *sweinamimz (noun)
porter – 1. daurawards (m. A) 2. daurawarda (f. O)
Portugal – *Paurtukaljis (m. Ja)
possess, to – gastaldan (VII)
possessedone ~ with devils = daimonareis (m. Ja)
possession – gafreideins (f. I/O)
possible (adj.) – mahteigs (adj. A)
post – *waurd (n. A) (in forum or blog)
pot – 1. *aurkjus (m. U/I) 2. *aurkeis (m. Ja)
potter – kasja (m. N)
pour, to – giutan (II abl)
power – mahts (f. I)
praise, to – hazjan (I weak j)
pray, to – bidjan (V abl irregular), he/she prayed = baþ
prayer – bida (f. O)
preach, to – merjan (I i weak)
preacher – merjands (m. Nd)
preaching – mereins (f. I/O)
precept – anabusns (f. I)
predestinate, to – fauragaraidan (abl red) (he/she predestinated = fauragarairoþ)
preeminence – frumadei (f. N)
preferable – þishun
pregnant woman – 1. inkilþo (f. N), being great with a child, to be pregnant = wisandei inkilþo 2. qiþuhafto (f. N)
prejudice – faurdomeins (f. O)
preparation – manwiþa (f. O)
prepared – manwus (adj. U)
present – 1. anahaimeis (adj. Ja) (at home) 2. andwairþs (adj. A) (something which is happening in the present)
present, to – atsatjan (I i weak j)
presentation – *atsateins (f. I/O)
presbytery – praizbwtairei (f. N)
presider (liturgies) – faurstasseis (m. Ja)
press, to – anatrimpan (III abl)
pretence – inilo (f. N)
prevent, to – warjan (I weak j)
price – wairþ (m. A)
pride – hauhhairtei (f. N)
priest – gudja (m. N), chief ~ = ufargudja (m. N)
prince – reiks (m. Cons.)
print, to – *usmeljan (I i weak)
printer – *usmeljo (f. N)
priority – frumadei (f. N)
prison – karkara (f. O)
prisoner – bandja (m. N)
privacy – *sundraleikei (f. N)
private – *sundraleiks (adj. A strong)
privately – sundro
privy – *gaggs (m. A)
prize – sigislaun (n. A)
progress – framgahts (f. I)
problem – aglo (f. N)
profit – bota (f. O)
profitable – bruks (adj. A)
project – *faurawaurpa (f. O) (reconstructed by Tom de Herdt)
promise – gahait (n. A)
proof – kustus (m. U) ( as in a challenge)
prophet – praufetes (m. U/I)
prostitute – kalkjo (f. N)
prostitution – kalkinassus (m. U)
proton – *protaun (n.)
proud – hauhþuhts (adj. A)
proud-hearted – hauhhairts (adj. A)
prove, to (v.) – kiusan (II abl.) + acc.
provide, to – garedan (abl red) (Garedandans auk goda = Providing for honest things)
provoke, to – ushaitan (I red)
prudence – inahei (f. N)
psalm (n.) – psalmon (noun) (dat. plur. = psalmom)
psychiatrist – 1. *pswkiatreija (m. N) 2. *pswkiatreijo (f. N)
psychiatry – *pswkiatreia (f. O)
psychological – *ahaleis (adj. A)
psychologist – 1. *ahaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *ahaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
psychology – *ahaleisei (f. N)
publican – motareis (m. Ja)
puff, to~ up = ufblesan (IV red)
pugnacity – þrasabalþei (f. N)
pull – *tauhts (f. I)
pull, to~ down = atdragan (VI abl)
pulling – *tauhts (f. I)
punishment – andabeit (n. A)
purity – hrainei (f. N)
purple – paurpuroþs (part-perf)
purpose – muns (m. I)
push, to~ aside = afskiuban (II)
put, to – lagjan (I weak j), ~ on = gahamon (II weak) + dat
pyjamas – *nahtapaida (f. O)
pyramid – *pwramis
quantum-mechanics – *kwantum-maikanika (n. A plural)
queen – *þiudana (f. O)
question – sokns (f. I)
quiet, to be – afdumbnan (IV weak) (qaþ du marein: gaslawai, afdumbn! = Said unto the sea: Peace, be still)
rabbi – rabbei (undeclined)
race – spaurds (f. Cons.) (Sports)
radio – 1. (neol) *luftustibna (f. O) 2. *radio (f. N) (loan)
ragnarökr – *ragine riqis (n. A)
rainbow – *rignabuga (m. N)
raise, to (v.) – urraisjan (I weak i)
ranked – *teweis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson)
ransom – andabauhts (f. I)
rather – maizuþ-þan (or rather are known of God, Gal. 4:9 = maizuþ-þan gakunnaidai fram guda)
rationality – gafraþjei (f. N)
ray – *strela (f. O)
read, to – 1. (us)siggwan (III) 2. (Greek) anakunnan (III)
really – bi sunjai
reap, to – sneiþan (I abl)
reason – gafraþjei (f. N) (rationality, faculty of reason)
reason, to (v.) – þagkjan (I weak i)
reasonable – 1. andaþahts (adj. A) 2. *andaþahtaba (adv)
rebuke, to – andbeitan (I abl)
receive, to – 1. niman (IV abl), 2. miþniman (iV abl)
receiving – andanumts (f. I)
recommendation – anafilh (n. A)
recompense – andalauni (n. Ja)
recompense, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
reconcile, to~ with = gafriþon (II weak) + dat
reconciliation – gafriþons (f. I)
red – rauþs (adj. A)
redeem, to (v.) – usbugjan (I weak j)
redemption – uslauseins (f. I/O)
reed – raus (n. A)
refrigerator – *koljo (f. N) (lit. Cooler)
regard, to – aistan (unspecified verb)
regardskind ~ = (rec.)
liubostons goleinins

region – fera (f. O)
register, to – anameljan (I)
registration – anameleins (f. I)
reign, to – 1. fraujinon (II weak) + dat, ~ as a king = þiudanon (II weak), ~ over = fraujinon/þiudanon ufar + dat.
reject, to – 1. uskiusan (II abl) 2. andspeiwan (I abl)
rejoice, to – sifan (III weak)
rejoicing (n.) – hwoftuli (f. Jo)
related – *samakuns (adj. I/Ja) (as in related in family, blood, group, by tribe)
release, to – fraletan (red abl) (to release a person, release unto someone)
remain, to – bileiban (I)
remember, to – gamunan (pret-pres) + gen.
remembrance – gamaudeins (f. I/O)
remnant – laiba (f. O)
remission – aflageins (f. I/O)
renew, to – ananiujan (I weak)
repay, to – fragildan (III abl) + dat
repent, to – idreigon (II weak), gaïdreigon (II weak)
repentance (n.) – idreiga (f. O)
reproach – idweit (n. A)
reproof – gasahts (f. I)
reputation (n.)to be of ~ – þuhts (past part.) wisan
request – bida (f. O)
researcher – *sokareis (m. Ja)
resist, to (v.) – andstandan (VI abl.)
resistance (n.) – *andstass (f. I)
rest – 1. gahveilains (f. I) 2. rimis (n. A)
restriction – gaaggwei (f. N)
resurrection – 1. usstass (f. I) 2. urrists (f. I) (only once)
reveal, to – andhuljan (I i weak j)
revelation – andhuleins (f. I/O)
revelling – gabaur (m. A)
revenge, to – fraweitan (I abl)
reverence, to (v.) – aistan (verb)
revile, to – laian (abl red) (they reviled = lailoun)
reward – 1. laun (n. A) 2. mizdo (f. N)
reward, to – usgildan (III abl.)
Reykjavik – *Raukiweika (f. O) (W.E.)
rich – gabigs (adj. A) (rich of = gabigs in + dat)
riches – 1. gabei (f. N) 2. faihu (n. U)
right~ side = taihswa (f. O)
righteousness – garaihteins (f. I/O)
rightly (adv.) – raihtaba (adv.)
ring – 1. figgragulþ (n. A) 2. *hriggs (m. A) (can be used for form of a ring)
ring fight – brakja (f. Jo) (wrestling)
rip – gataura (m. N) (rip of garment)
rise, to – ushlaupan (II red) (as in a person going to stand)
river – ahwa (f. O)
roe-deer – 1. *raiha (m. N) 2. *raihs (m. A)
robot – 1. *skalks (m. A) 2. *mahtiskalks (m. A)
rock – hallus (m. U)
rocket – *rukka (f. O)
rod – wandus (m. U)
roll, to~ away = afwalwjan (I i weak)
Roman – Rumonus (m. U/I) 2. *Rumonisks (adj. A)
Rome – Ruma (f. O)
roof – hrot (n. A)
room – heþjo (f. N), large upper ~ = kelikn (n. A) mikilata (adj. A), to have ~ = gamotan (pret-pres)
rooster – hana (m. N)
root – waurts (f. I)
rope – *sail (n. A)
Rosicrucian – *rausakrukeis (m. Ja)
round – *hriggaleiks (adj. A)
row – wiko (f. N)
rub, to – bnauan (V red)
rule – garaideins (f. I/O) (as in a rule, a guideline to be followed)
ruler – fraujinonds (m. Nd)
run, to – rinnan (III abl), ~ over = ufargiutan (II abl)
Russia – *Rusaland (n. A)
Russian – 1. *Rus (m. A) (citizen) 2. *Rusisks (adj. A)
rust – nidwa (noun)
rye – *rugs (m. I)
sabbat – sabbatus (m. U), the day after ~ = afarsabbatus (m. U)
sackcloth – sakkus (m. U)
sacred – weihs (adj. A)
sacrifice – 1. hunsl (n. A) 2. sauþs (m. I)
sacrifice, to – hunsljan (I weak i)
sad – gaurs (adj. A)
safely – arniba
safety – þwastiþa (f. O)
sail, to – farjan (I j weak)
saint – weiha (m. N)
salt – salt (n. A)
salt, to – saltan (III red)
salute, to (v.) – goljan (I weak i)
salutation – goleins (f. I/O)
salvation – 1. naseins (f. I/O) 2. ganists (f. I)
same – sama (adj. A, weak), at the ~ time = samana
sanctify, to – gaweihan (III weak)
sand – malma (m. N)
sapphire – *saffeirus (m. U)
satanism – *satanismus (m. U)
satanist – *satanistus (m. U)
satisfying (n.) – soþa (noun)
Saturday – sabbato (undeclinable)
save, to – nasjan (I j weak)
say, to – qiþan (V abl) + dat
scare, to – usagjan (I weak j)
scatter, to – distahjan (I j weak)
school – 1. *skaula (f. O) 2. *skola (f. O)
scorpion – skaurpjo (f. N)
scrip – matibalgs (m. I)
Scythian – Skwþus (noun m. U?)
sea – 1. marei (f. N) 2. marisaiws (m. Noun)
seal – 1. sigljo (n. N) 2. *sailhs (m. A) (animal)
seal, to – faursigljan (I i weak)
search – sokeins (f. I/O)
season (n.) – mel (n. A)
season, to – gasupon (II weak)
secret – 1. runa (f. O) 2. analaugns (adj. A) in ~ = in analaugnein
secretly – analaugniba
security – þwastiþa (f. O)
see, to – saihvan (V abl.)
seed – fraiw (n. A)
seek, to (v.) – sokjan (I weak i)
seem, to (v.) – þugkjan (I weak i), it ~s to me = þugkeiþ mis
seismology – *reiraleisei (f. N)
seize, to – grepan (I)
self – silba (adj. A, weak)
send, to~ away = fraletan (red abl) (fralet þo managein = Send the multitude away)
sender – *sandja (f. O)
seperate (adj.) – afskaidans (past-participle)
seperate, to – afskaidan (I red) (to seperate oneself from), ~ from = afskaidan af + dat.
seperation (n.) – afskaideins (f. I/O)
sepulchre – hlaiw (n. A)
servant – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. þiumagus (m. U) (young boy) 3. magus (m. U) (a young boy) 4. (Servants) þewisa (n. A)
serve, to – 1. skalkinon (II weak) + dat 2. andbahtjan (I i weak) + dat
service – 1. skalkinassus (m. U)
settle, to (v.) – gatulgjan (I weak i)
severity – hvassei (f. N)
sex – samakuns (adj. I) (in lustau)
shadow – skadus (m. U)
shake, to – 1gawagjan (I weak) 2. ushrisjan (I weak j) (shake off the dust under your feet = ushrisjaiþ mulda þo undaro fotum izwaraim)
shame – aiwiski (n. Ja)
shameful – agls (adj. A)
sharply – hvassaba (as in severely)
shave, to – 1. kapillon (II) 2. biskaban (VI)
sheath – fodr (n. A)
sheepfold – awistr (n. A)
shekel – sikls (m. Noun)
shelter – *haribairgo (f. N)
shepherd – hairdeis (m. Ja)
shewing – ustaikneins (f. I/O)
shield – skildus (m. U)
shilling – skilliggs (m. A)
shine, to – glitmunjan (I i weak), ~ round = biskeinan (I abl)
shining – *blaiks (adj.) (reconstructed by J.R.R. Tolkien)
ship – skip (n. A)
shipwreckto suffer ~ = usfarþon taujan us skipa
shirt – paida (f. O)
shit – 1. maihstus (m. U) 2. smarna (f. O)
shoe – skohs (m. A)
shoes – gaskohi (n. Ja)
short – maurgus (adj. U)
shortage – waninassus (m. U)
shorten, to – gamaurgjan (I)
shoulder – 1. ams (m. A) 2. amsa (m. N) (Only occurs once)
show, to – ataugjan (I i weak) (person/object to whom shown = dat., shown person/object = acc.)
sick – siuks (adj. A)
sickle – gilþa (f. O)
sickness – siukei (f. N)
sign – 1. taikns (f. I) 2. bandwa (f. Wo) 3. bandwo (f. N)
sign, to = ufmeljan (I) + dative
signature – *ufmeleins (f. I/O)
silence – þahains (f. I) , in ~ = in hauniþai (f. O)
similar – galeiks (adj. A)
sin – frawaurhts (f. I)
Sinai (n.)mount ~ = fairguni (n. Ja) Seina (dat. = Seinai)
sincerity – 1. unriurei (f. N) 2. unwammei (f. N) 3. hlutrei (f. N)
sing, to~ for someone = liuþon (II weak) + dat
singer – liuþareis (m. Ja)
singleness – ainfalþei (f. N)
Sion – Sion (noun)
sister – swistar (f. R)
sit, to – sitan (V abl)
skull – hvairnei (f. N)
slanderer – diabula (f. O)
slaughter – slauhts (f. I) (the act of slaughter)
Slav – *Sklabens (m. A) (W.E.)
slave – 1. skalks (m. A) 2. (house-servant) þius (m. U)
slavery – 1. skalkinassus (m. U) 2. þiwadw (noun)
Slavic – *Sklabenisks (adj. A)
slay, to – afslahan (VI)
sleep, to – slepan (IV red) (3rd past tense = saislep), to fall asleep = anaslepan (IV red)
sleight – filudeisei (f. N)
Slovakia – *Slaubakja (f. O)
Slovakian – 1. *Slaubakus (m. U/I) 2. *Slaubakiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 3. *Slaubakisks (adj. A)
small – leitils (adj. A)
smaller – minniza (Comp.)
smear, to – gasmeitan (I)
smell – dauns (f. I)
smooth – slaihts (adj. A)
snake – waurms (m. A)
snare – wruggo (f. N)
snot, to – *snutjan
snow – snaiws (noun)
snowman – snaiwsmanna (m. N)
soap – *saipjo (f. N) (W. E.)
sober – gafaurs (adj. I)
sobriety – inahei (f. N)
soft – hnasqus (adj. U)
softly – *hnasquba
soldier – gadrauhts (m. I)
solitary – auþeis (adj. Ja)
son – sunus (m. U)
son-in-law – megs (m. Noun)
song – liuþ (n. A)
soon – sprauto, so ~ = swa(swe) sprauto
sorrow – 1. gauriþa (f. O) 2. sair (n. A)
soul – saiwala (f. O)
sound – drunjus (m. U)
soup – *bruþ (n. A)
south – 1. *sunþrs (m. A) 2. *sunþra- (adj.), from the ~ = *sunþana, in the ~ = *sunþar, to the ~ = *sunþar
southwards – *sunþar
sow, to – 1. saian (abl red) 2. insaïan (abl red)
space – rum (n. A), to have ~ = gamotan (pret-pres)
Spain – *Heispanja (f. O)
Spanish – 1. *Heispaniska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Heispanisks (adj. A)
speak, to~ evil of = anaqiþan (V abl)
spear – *gais (m. A)
spearow – sparwa (m. N)
spectacle – fairweitl (n. A)
spend, to – fraqiman (IV)
sperm – *fraiw (n. A)
spikenard – nardus (m. U)
spilled, to be – usgutnan (IV weak)
spirit – ahma (m. N) (Spirit from God or a human, for ghost, see ghost)
spiritual – ahmeins (adj. A)
spit, to – gaspeiwan (I abl)
spittle – speiskuldra (noun)
spleen – *miltja
spoil, to (v.) – andhamon (II weak) + dat (And having spoiled principalities and powers = andhamonds sik leika, reikja jah waldufnja)
sponge – swamms (m. A)
spoon – *spenus (m. U) (W.E.)
spring, to – keinan (I abl) (of seed), and the seed shall spring = jah þata fraiw keiniþ
spy – ferja (m. N)
spy, to – biniuhsjan (I weak i)
stablish, to – tulgjan (I i weak)
staff – hrugga (f. O)
stairs – *usstaiga (f. O) (W.E.)
stake – 1. hnuþo (f. N) 2. *staka (m. N)
stallion – *hahists / *hangists (m. N)
stand, to – standan (VI abl) ~ with = miþwisan (unspecified verb)
star – stairno (f. N)
startled, to be – gaþlahsnan (IV weak)
state – reiki (n. Ja)
stature – wahstus (m. U)
stave – walus (m. U)
steal, to – stilan (IV abl)
stedfast – tulgus (adj. U)
stedfastly – *tulguba
steel – stahl(s) (m., n. A) (W.E.)
steep~ place – driuso (f. N)
steward – fauragaggja (m. N)
stewardship – fauragaggi (n. Ja)
sting – gazds (m. A)
stinking – fuls (adj. A)
stir, to – gawagjan (I weak)
Stockholm – *Stukkahulms (m. A)
stone – stains (m. A), corner ~ = waihstastains (m. A)
stony – stainahs (adj. A)
stop, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (to stop something or someone else) , not ~ = ni hweilan (III weak)
storm – skura (f. O), wind~ = skura windis, fire~ = *skura funins
stork – *udafara (m. N) (W.e.)
story – insahts (f. I)
straight (adj.) – raihts (adj. A)
straightway – sunsaiw
strait – aggwus (adj. U)
stranger – 1. gasts (m. I) 2. aljakuns (adj. I)
street – 1. gatwo (f. N) 2. plapja (f. O)
strength – swinþei (f. N)
strengthen, to (v.) – gaswinþjan (I weak i)
stretch, to – 1. fairrinnan (III abl.) (mitaþ fairrinnandein und jah izwis = a measure to reach even unto you) 2. ufrakjan (I weak j) (used for hands)
strife – 1. sakjo (f. N) 2. ~ of words = waurdajiuka (f. O)
strike, to – *bautan (VII abl)
striker – slahals (m. Noun)
stripe – slahs (m. I)
strive, to (v.) – usdaudjan (I weak i)
strong – swinþs (adj. A)
stronger – swinþoza (Comp.)
student – siponeis (m. Ja)
stumblingblock (n.) – bistugq (n. A)
subconscious – *ufgahugds (f. I)
subculture – *minniza (comp.) kunjahaidus (m. U)
subject – 1. *ufwaurpa (f. O) 2. to be ~ to ordinances = urredan (abl red) (hva þanaseiþs swe qiwai in þamma fairhvau urrediþ? = why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances)
subjection – 1. ufhaiseins (f. I/O), 2. ufhnaiweins (f. I/O), to bring into ~ = anaþiwan (III weak)
subverting – uswalteins (f. I/O)
such – swaleiks (adj. A strong)
suck, to – 1. daddjan (I weak i) 2. *sugan (II abl) m
suddenly – anaks
sue, to – staua (f. O) niman (IV abl.)
suffer, to – (ga)winnan (III abl)
suffering – winno (f. N)
sufficienty – ganauha (m. N)
sugar – *sakkar (n. A) (W.E.)
suit, to – gatiman (IV)
summer – asans (f. I)
sun – 1. sunno (f. N) 2. (Only used once) sauil (n. A)
Sunday – *sunnins dags (m. A)
superfluous – ufjo
superscription – ufarmeleins (f. I/O)
supper – nahtamats (m. I)
supply – andstald (n. A)
supply, to – andstaldan (III red)
suppose, to – munan (pret-pres)
surely – arniba
surmising – anaminds (f. I)
surpass, to – ufarþeihan (I abl)
surround, to – bisatjan (I j weak)
Surtur (myth.) – *Swartus (m. U)
Swede – *Sweja (m. N)
Sweden – *Swejaland (n. A)
swear, to – swaren (VI abl)
sweet – sutis (adj. I) (most forms went over into -ja declension,
sweetly – *sutiba (adv)
swelling – ufswalleins (f. I/O)
sword – 1. hairus (m. U)
sycamine tree – bairabagms (m. A)
symbology – *taiknileisei (f. N)
synagogue – swnagoge (f. Noun)
Syria – 1. Saurja (f. O) (gen. Saurais) 2. Swria (f. O)
Syrian – (m.) Saur (m. U/I), (f.) Saur
tabernacle – 1. hliþra (f. O) 2. hlija (m. N)
table – 1. biuþs *(m. A) (table to eat) 2. mes (n. A) (table for working) 3. writing ~ = spilda (f. O), ~ of stone = spilda (f. O) staineina (adj. A)
tablet – spilda (f. O)
tag – (online) sokjawaurd (n. A)
tail – *spaurds (m. A)
take, to – 1. niman (IV abl), ~ from = afholon (II weak), ~ out = usniman (IV abl) 2. to take (by hand) = fairgreipan (I abl)
talk, to – rodjan (I i weak)
tapas – *tappos (f. O) (plural)
taste, to – kausjan (I i weak) + acc
tax – 1. gild (n. A) 2. gilstr (n. A)
taxing – gilstrameleins (f. I/O)
tea – *hairbata (f. O) (W. E.)
teach, to – 1. laisjan (I i weak) 2. talzjan (I i weak)
teacher – 1. laisareis (m. Ja) 2. talzjands (m. Nd)
tear – gataura (m. N) (tearing of garment)tear, to – *tiran (IV), ~ apart = *tiran (IV) (loanword in Asturian)
telegraph – (neol) fairramelja (m. N)
telephone – 1. *razdasandja (f. O) 2. *stibnasandja (f. O) (lit. voice-transmitter) 3. *stibnjo (f. Jon) (lit. voicer) 4. *sandja (f. O) (lit. sender)
telescope – *fairrasiuns (f. I)
television – 1. *siunisandja (f. O) (lit. image-transmitter) 2. *manleikasandja (f. O) 3. *siunjo (f. Jon) (lit. sighter) 5. *manleikjo (f. Jon) (lit. Imager)
temperance – gahobains (f. I)
temple – alhs (m. Cons)
temporal – riureis (adj. I/Ja)
tempt, to – 1. fraisan (I red) 2. usfraisan (I red)
temptation – fraistubni (f. Jo)
tender – þlaqus (adj. U)
tent – hleiþra (f. O)
terror – agis (n. A)
test – kustus (m. U)
testify, to (v.) – weitwodjan (I weak i)
testimony – 1. weitwodiþa (f. O) 2. weitwodei (f. N)
tetrach – fidurragini (n. Ja)
thank, to – awiliudon (II) + dat.
thankful – awiliudonds (II weak) + dat.
thanks – awiliuþ (n. A)
that – 1. þata 2. (Conj.) þatei, ei (as in: I see that I ….) 3. so ~ = ei … + opt 4. (Dem. Pron.) see: this
the – (Only used in emphasis or comparison and after a noun is used for the first time), see: this
theft – þiubi (n. Ja)
their – 1. (m.) ize 2. (f.) izo
them – im (dat.), ins (m. Acc.), ija (n. / f. Acc.)
themselves – to ~ = du sis misso
then – þannu (used in an abstract sense in a conclusion, like in: if… then = þande … þannu)
theological – *gudleis (adj. A)
theologist – 1. *gudleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *gudleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
theology – *gudleisei (f. N)
theory – *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O)
there – jainar
thereafter – afar þata
therefore – þannu (so then)
thief – hliftus (m. U)
think, to – 1. miton (II weak) 2. hugjan (I) (to suppose)
thirst – þaurstei (f. N)
thirtieth – *þrijatiguda (comp.)
this – 1. sa (m. Nom.), þata (n. Nom. / Acc.), so (f. Nom.), þis (m./n. Gen.), þizos (f. Gen.), þamma (m./n. Dat.), þizai (f. Dat.), þana (m. Acc.), þo (f. Acc.)
thorn – þaurnus (m. U)
thought – mitons (f. I)
thousand – þusundi (f. Jo)
thousandth – * þûsundida (comp.)
thrash – maihstus (m. U)
thread – *þredus (m. U)
threat – hwota (f. O)
threaten, to – gahwotjan (I weak)
threatening – hwota (f. O)
three – þreis (adj. A strong)
Thursday – *þunaris dags (m. A)
Tiberian – Tibairiadeis (m. U/I)
time – 1. mel (n. A) (moment) 2. sinþ (n. A) (always with dative, e.g. two times = twaim sinþam), at the same ~ = samana, at this ~ = bi þamma mela
title – ufarmeli (n. Ja)
tittle – striks (m. I)
Tiw – *Teiws (m. A)
to – du + dative
today – himma daga
toe – *tains (m. A)
together – samana
toilet – *gaggastaþs (m. I)
token – see sign
Tokyo – (neol.) Tokio (f. N)
tolerable – sutis (adj. I)
tomorrow – gistradagis
tongue – tuggo (f. N)
too – 1. jah (synonym of also) 2. ufar- (too much = ufarfilu)
tooth – tunþus (m. U)
torch (n.) – hais (noun)
touch – *atsnarpeins (f. I/O)
touch, to – 1. attekan (V red abl) (he/she touched = attaitok) 2. atsnarpjan (I i weak) 2. rahton (II weak) (symbolically)
towel – *þwahilo (f. N) (W. E.)
tower – kelikn (n. A)
tradition – anafilh (n. A)
traffic – *fara (f. O)
train – *tauhts (f. I)
transfiguration – *inmaideins (f. I/O)
transfigure, to – inmaidjan (I i weak)
transgressor (n.) – missataujan (as a pret. pres.) (I make myself a transgressor, Gal. 2:18 = missataujandan mik silban ustaiknja)
translate, to – gaskeirjan (I)
translator – gaskeirja (m. N)
translation – gaskeireins (f. I/O)
transmitter – *sandja (f. O)
travel, to – wraton (II weak)
tread, to – trudan (IV abl)
treasure – huzd (n. A)
treat, to~ shamefully = ganaitjan (I weak)
trespass – missadeþs (f. I)
tribulation – agliþa (f. O)
tribute (n.) – gild (n. A)
trip – wratodus (m. U)
triumphant – hroþeigs (adj. A)
troll – *trallu (n. U) (Reconstructed by Grimm)
trouble – aglo (f. N)
trouble, to – 1. usþriutan (II abl) + dat 2. drobjan (I weak i)
true – sunjeins (adj. A)
trust, to – gatrauan (III weak)
truth – sunja (f. O)
Tuesday – *Teiwis dags (m. A)
tumult – 1. auhjodus (m. U) 2. drobna (m. N)
turkey (bird) – *pawahana (m. N) (reconstructed by David Salo)
turn, to~ away = afwandjan (I weak i)
turnip – 1. *rap (n. A) 2. *rapa (f. O) 3. *naps (m. A)
turtle – *taistudo (f. N) (W.E.)
turtledove – hraiwadubo (f. N)
tutor – ragineis (m. Ja)
tweet – *tweit (n. A)
twelve – twalif (gen. = twalibe, dat. = twalibim)
twentieth – *twatiguda (comp.)
two – twai (adj. A strong)
ty – tigjus (m. U) (suffix for decades 20-60)
Tyr – *teiws (m. A)
unbelief – ungalaubeins (f. I/O)
unborn – unbaurans (part-perf)
uncertain – unwiss (adj)
uncircumcision – faurafilli (n. Ja) (it. For-skin)
uncleanness – 1. unhrainiþa (f. O) 2. unhrainei (f. N)
under – uf + dat
underground – *ufgrundus (m. U)
underpants – *ufbroks (f. Cons.)
understanding – 1. frodei (f. N) 2. fullaweis (adj. A)
underworld – *uffairhvus (m. U)
undisputed – unandsakans (part-perf)
undress, to – andwasjan (I j weak)
ungodliness – afgudei (f. N)
unisex – gamains (adj. A)
United States – *Amairika (f. O)
unity – ainamundiþa (f. O)
university – 1. *mikila skaula (f. O) 2. *mikila skola (f. O)
unjust – 1. inwinds (adj. A) 2. inwindiþos (f. O) (the adjective unjust is formed with the genitive singular of inwindiþa, meaning unrighteousness)
unlearned – untals (adj. A)
unleavened – unbeistjoþs (past-perf)
unless – sware
unmarried – 1. *unqeniþs (part. perf.) (only used for men) 2. unliugaiþs (past-perf)
unmoveable – ungawagiþs (part-perf)
unprepared – unmanwus (adj. U)
unrighteousness – inwindiþa (f. O)
unsearchable – unfairlaistiþs (past-perf)
unspeakable – unqeþs (adj. I/Ja)
unthankful – launawargs (adj. A)
unwashen – unþwahans (past-perf)
uproar – drobna (m. N)
urinate, to – *meigan (I)
urine – *hland (n. A)
urology – *hlandaleisei (f. N)
use, to – brukjan (I weak i) + gen
useful – bruks (adj. I)
username – (neol) *atgagganamo (n. N), see name for exceptions in the declension
vail – hulistr (n. A)
valley – dals (m. Noun)
valkyrie – *walakusjo (f. N)
value – wairþ (n. A)
value, to – wairþon (II weak)
Vandal – *wandals (m. A)
vanish, to – gataurnan (IV weak)
vanity – uswissi (n. Ja)
vassalthe ~ of the king = *þiufaþs (m. I)
veal – *kalbamimz (noun)
veil – faurhah (n. A)
vengeance – fraweit (n. A), ~ is mine = mis fraweit leitaidau
Venus – auzawandils (m. A)
very – 1. filu 2. abraba (stronger than filu)
vessel – kas (n. A)
victorious – hroþeigs (adj. A)
victory – sigis (n. A)
video – *film (n. A)
viking – *weikiggs (m. A)
vine – weinatriu (n. Wa)
vineyard – weinatriu (n. Wa)
virgin magaþs (f. I)
virginity – magaþei (f. N)
virtue – godei (f. N)
visible – anasiuns (adj. I)
Visigoth – *Wistraguta (m. N)
Visigothic – *Wistragutisks (adj. A)
visit, to – gaweison (II weak) + gen.
visitation – niuhseins (f. I/O)
vivid – *gaheis (adj. Ja) (reconstructed by Peter Alexander Kerkhof)
voice – stibna (f. O)
wade, to – *wadan (reconstructed by J.G. Quak)
wag, to – wiþon (II weak)
wage (n.) – laun (n. A)
wagon – 1. *karrahago (f. N) (latinized Gothic word) 2. *karrs (m. A)
wait, to – beidan (I abl) + gen. (Waiting for the kingdom of God = beidands þiudangardjos gudis; thing waited for is in the genitive)
Wales – *Walhaland (n. A)
walhalla – *walahalla (f. O)
walk, to – hwarbon (II weak)
wall – baurgswaddjus (f. U) (literally: city-wall, for another kind of wall use waddjus (f. U) seperately)
walrus – *haursahwals (n. A)
want, to – wiljan (unspecifief verb) (present tense conjugated like the optative present form)
war – *badus (m. U), second world ~ = anþar (adj. A strong) fairhvubadus (m. U), to go to ~ = driugan (II weak)
warfare – drauhtinassus (m. U), to go on ~ = drauhtinon (II weak)
warmth – *warmei (f. N)
wary – *war (adj. A)
wasp – *wapso (f. N)
waste – fraqisteins (f. I/O)
watching – wokains (f. I)
water – wato (n. N), pl. Nom. = watna, pl. Gen. = *watne, pl. Dat. = watnam, pl. Acc. = watna, white- ~ / rapids = stainaha watna
wave – wegs (m. A)
way – 1. wigs (n. A) (way on a land), rough ~ = usdrusts (f. I) 2. haidus (m. U) (way to do something)
weak – unmahteigs (adj. A)
weapon – 1. *wepna (n. A) (plural) 2. *sarwa (m. N)
weather – *wiþr (n. A)
Wednesday – *wodanisdags (m. A)
week – 1. sabbato (f. N) 2. wiko (f. N) (attested only once)
weekend – *sabbatons andeis (m. Ja)
weep, to – gretan (abl red) (he/she wept = gaigrot)
weeping – grets (m. A)
weight – kaurei (f. N)
weighty – kaurus (adj. U)
well – waila
Welsh – 1. *walhiska (adj. A) razda (f. O) 2. *Walhisks (adj. A)
Welshman – *walhs (m. A)
werewolf – *wairawulfs (m. A)
west – 1. *wistrs (m. A) 2. wistra- (adj.), from the ~ = *wistana, in the ~ = *wistar, to the ~ = *wistar
westwards – *wistar
wet – *nats (adj. A)
what – 1. (int) hva 2. (relative pronoun) see which

whatsoever – þishwah
wheat – hvaiteis (m. Ja)
wheel – 1. *raþ (n. A) (dat. Sing. raþa) 2. *hwi(h)l (n. A)
when – 1. (int.) hvan 2. þan (can never be used in initial position) 3. þanuh
where – 1. (int.) hvar 2. þarei (in phrases which aren’t questions, in the sense of: the place where = staþs, þarei)
whether – ei, ~ … or = jaþþe … jaþþe
while – 1. hveila (f. O) 2. miþþanei (With contrast, used as in: I was here, while he was there. Ik was her, miþþanei is was jainar.)
whip – *laittug
white – hveits (adj. A)
white, to – hveitjan (I i weak)
who – 1. (int.) (m. Nom.) Hvas, (f. Nom.) Hvo 2. (Who as relative pronoun, the person who ..) (m. Nom.) Saei, (n. Nom.) þatei, (f. Nom.) soei/sei (sei is used more frequently then soei)
wholly – allandjo (indecl)
whore – kalkjo (f. N)
whosoever – hwazuh saei (masc. nom. sing. form)
why – 1. (interr) duhve 2. (interr) hva þatei 3. (confirmative), that’s why = in þis, in þizei
wicked – unsibjis (adj. Ja)
wickedness – unselei (f. N)
wide – braiþs (adj.)
widow – widuwo (f. N)
width – braidei (f. N)
wife (n.) – qino (f. N)
wild (adj.) – 1. haiþiwisks (adj. A) (food or product which is from the wild)
wilderness – auþida (f. O)
wildly – wilþiba
will – wilja (m. N)
will, to (v.) – haban (III weak) + verb (the future tense in Gothic is formed by the verb haban + the verb), for would + verb you use the past subjunctive tense of a verb in Gothic, e.g. I would do = tawidedjau
willingly – us lustum
wind – winds (m. A)
window – augadauro (n. N)
wine – wein (n. A), berry ~ = basjawein (n. A), given to ~ = weinnas
wineservant – *skagkja (m. N)
wing – *fiþrahama (m. N)
winter – wintrus (m. U)
wipe, to~ out = afswairban (III)
wisdom – 1. handugei (f. N) 2. frodei (f. N)
wise – 1. handugs (adj. A) 2. froþs (adj. A)
wisely – frodaba
witch – *haljaruna (f. O)
witchcraft – lubjaleisei (f. N)
with – miþ + dat
withdraw, to – ufsliupan (II abl)
without – 1. inuh + acc 2. utana + gen (from the outside)
withstand, to – andstandan (VI)
witness – 1. weitwoþs (m. Root)
wizard – *lubjaleis (m. A)
woad – *wai(z)da (f. O)
Wodan – *Wodans (m. A)
woe – O woe = wai
wolf – wulfs (m. A)
woman – qino (f. N)
womb – 1. qiþus (m. U) 2. kilþei (f. N) (occurs only once)
wood – triu (n. Wa)
wooden – *triweins (adj. A)
woodpeaker – *paih(t)s (m. A)
woods – *widus (m. U)
word – waurd (n. A)
work – waurstw (n. A)
worker – gawaurstwa (m. N)
working – waurstwei (f. N) (not labour by men but doing something)
world – 1. fairhvus (m. U) 2. midjungards (m. I) (the world where people live)
worm – maþa (m. N)
wormhole – *waurmaþairko (f. N)
worse – 1. wairsiza (comp.) 2. wairs
worship, to – blotan (V red)
worshipper – 1. *blostreis (m. Ja), ~ of God = gudblostreis (m. Ja) 2. *blostreisa (f. O)
worshipping – 1. blotinassus (m. U) 2. skalkinassus (m. U)
worthy (adv) – wairþaba
wrap, to – biwindan (III abl)
wrath – 1. þwairhei (f. N) 2. moþs (m. A)
write, to – meljan (I) + dat
writer – 1. bokareis (m. Ja) 2. *bokari (f. Jo)
yellow – 1. *gilws (adj. Wa) 2. *gulws (adj. Wa)
Yiddish – 1. *Idiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo) 2. *Jidiska (f. O) (reconstructed by David Salo)
yoke – juk (n. A)
younger – minniza (Comp.), only in: The elder serves the ~ = sa maiza skalkinoþ þamma minizin
your – 1. (sing) (both informal and formal) þeins (posessive pronoun, always declined strongly) 2. (dual) iggqar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly) 3. (plural) izwar (possesive pronoun, always declined strongly)
youth – junda (f. O) (someones youth)
yule – *jiul (n. A)
zeal – aljan (n. A)
zeitgeist – *aldiwists (f. I)
zionism – *Sionismus (m. U)
zionist – *Sionistus (m. U)
zoological (adj.) – *diuzaleis (adj. A)
zoologist (n.) – *diuzaleis (m. A) (declined like an adjective) 2. *diuzaleisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective)
zoology (n.) – *diuzaleisei (f. N)

 

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